Diferencias en los determinantes del éxito en el emprendimiento en México, una perspectiva de género

Resumen

En las últimas décadas las mujeres han logrado posicionarse en los mercados laborales y además participar de manera activa en la creación de nuevas empresas (Langowitz y Minniti, 2007). En el caso de México, de acuerdo con datos de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 3 de cada 5 negocios que se abren son dirigidos por mujeres, del mismo modo se ha observado que en este país, el gobierno ha puesto énfasis en generar programas de apoyo para las mujeres emprendedoras. No obstante, el índice de fracaso de los emprendimientos es del 75%. Lo cual obliga a investigar los factores que determinan el éxito de los emprendimientos entre hombres y mujeres. Para ello, se analizan los factores conductuales y gerenciales que determinan el impacto en el éxito emprendedor, realizando un estudio empírico a 255 directivos de empresas de reciente creación (de 0 a 3 años de apertura) en cuatro ciudades del norte de México. A través del uso de ecuaciones estructurales se pudieron observar las diferencias en el éxito en los negocios entre hombres y mujeres. En primer lugar, se observó que lo que determina el éxito de las mujeres en los negocios radica en los elementos conductuales, es decir, son los rasgos psicológicos (extraversión, apertura y conciencia). Mientras que para los hombres las capacidades gerenciales son las que determinan su éxito. Los resultados anteriores, dejan ver la necesidad de fortalecer la capacitación gerencial en las mujeres para alcanzar el éxito empresarial.

Biografía del autor/a

Yesenia Sánchez Tovar

Doctora en Economía y Gestión de las Organizaciones. Profesora Investigadora en la Facultad de Comercio y Administración Victoria de la Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas E-mail: yesanchez@docentes.uat.edu.mx. (Autor para la correspondencia). ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4299-191X

Miguel Ángel† Macías García

Doctor en Ciencias Administrativas. Profesor Investigador de la Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas. E-mail: amacias@docentes.uat.edu.mx ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1151-8131

José Esteban Mendoza Flores

Maestro en Administración. Profesor Investigador de la Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas. E-mail: emflores@docentes.uat.edu.mx ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1255-3214

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Publicado
2021-04-28
Cómo citar
Sánchez Tovar, Y., Macías García, M. Ángel†, & Mendoza Flores, J. E. (2021). Diferencias en los determinantes del éxito en el emprendimiento en México, una perspectiva de género. Revista Venezolana De Gerencia, 26(94), 880-902. https://doi.org/10.52080/rvgv26n94.25
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