Legal coverage of will expression by means of information technologies

Cobertura jurídica de la manifestación de testamentos por medio de las tecnologías de la información

Palabras clave: tecnologías innovadoras, democracia electrónica, transformaciones digitales, voto electrónico, petición electrónica

Resumen

El propósito del artículo fue identificar y revelar las principales iniciativas legislativas modernas contemporáneas destinadas a asegurar la expresión de la voluntad por medio de la tecnología de la información. Las principales herramientas metodológicas aplicadas en el estudio fueron el análisis jurídico comparado y el método de observación. El estudio mostró que la manifestación efectiva de la voluntad requiere una mayor implementación de los sistemas de última generación de peticiones electrónicas, recursos digitales y voto electrónico. Las iniciativas legislativas pertinentes deben servir para aumentar la capacidad de participación y discusión ciudadana. Se fundamenta que las direcciones prioritarias de los cambios en los ordenamientos jurídicos deben ser: 1) reformas encaminadas a cerrar la brecha digital en materia de acceso a las tecnologías de la información; 2) mejora técnica del procedimiento de voto electrónico; 3) aumentar la informatización relevante de los ciudadanos; 4) garantizar la máxima protección del entorno digital estatal. Debe prestarse especial atención al desarrollo jurídico de un enfoque tecnocrático integral. Se concluye que es conveniente aplicar una tecnología híbrida para que el pueblo haga efectivo su derecho al voto y le dé más oportunidades de participar en los procesos de gobernabilidad y gobernanza digital.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Viktor Savchenko, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Ph.D in Law, Associate Professor at the Department of Civil Law, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61022, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Oleksandra Dotsenko, Lawyers Union “Legal Alliance”, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Ph.D in Law, Associate Professor, Department of Law, Khmelnytskyi Institute of Trade and Economics, 29016, Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine; Lawyers Union “Legal Alliance”, 04070, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Volodymyr Iashchenko, National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Doctor of Law, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Scientific Center of National Security and Law of the State Scientific Institution “Institute of Information, Security and Law of the National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine”, 04053, Kyiv, Ukraine.


Oleksandr Boyarskyy, South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University Named After K. D. Ushinsky, Odesa, Ukraine.

Doctor of Law, Associate Professor at the Department of Political and Legal Sciences, Faculty of Social Law, South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University Named After K. D. Ushinsky, 65000, Odesa, Ukraine.

Viktor Shemchuk, Lviv State University of Internal Affairs, Lviv, Ukraine.

Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Professor, Department of Theory of Law, Constitutional and Private Law, Faculty No. 1 of the Institute for the Training of Specialists for Units of the National Police, Lviv State University of Internal Affairs, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine.


Citas

AZIZ, Muhammad Saiful; HASNA, Sofia. 2020. “The Problem of E-Democracy and its Impact on Political Participation in Indonesia” In: Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. Vol. 510.

BERG, Janne; LINDHOLM, Jenny; HÖGVÄG, Joachim. 2021. “How Do We Know That It Works? Designing a Digital Democratic Innovation with the Help of User-centered Design” In: Information Polity. Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 221-235.

BERG, Sebastian; HOFMANN, Jeanette. 2021. “Digital democracy” In: Internet Policy Review. Vol. 10, No. 4.

BIOMETRICUPDATE. 2022. Ukraine and Estonia show government digital ID leadership. Available online. In: https://www.biometricupdate. com/202204/ukraine-and-estonia-show-government-digital-id- leadership. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

CABINET OF MINISTERS OF UKRAINE. 2017. On approval of the Concept of e-democracy in Ukraine and the action plan for its implementation. The Order. No. 797-r. November 8, 2017. Available online. In: https:// zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/797-2017-%D1%80#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

CABINET OF MINISTERS OF UKRAINE. 2019a. Issues of the Unified State Web Portal of Electronic Services and the Register of Administrative Services. The Resolution. No. 1137. December 4, 2019. Available online. In: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1137-2019-%D0%BF#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

CABINET OF MINISTERS OF UKRAINE. 2019b. On approval of the Regulations on the integrated electronic identification system. The Resolution. No. 546. June 19, 2019. Available online. In: https://zakon. rada.gov.ua/laws/show/546-2019-%D0%BF#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

CABINET OF MINISTERS OF UKRAINE. 2019c. On approval of the action plan for the implementation of the Concept of e-democracy in Ukraine for 2019-2020. The Order. No. 405-r. June 12, 2019. Available online. In: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/405-2019%D1%80#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

CHANG, Victor; BAUDIER, Patricia; ZHANG, Hui; XU, Qianwen; ZHANG, Jingqi; ARAMI, Mitra. 2020. “How Blockchain can impact financial services – the overview, challenges and recommendations from expert interviewees” In: Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Vol. 2020, No. 158, pp. 120-166.

CHEN, Maggie; VOLPE MARTINCUS, Christian. 2022. “Digital Technologies and Globalization: A Survey of Research and Policy Applications ”In: Inter- American Development Bank. Discussion Paper No. IDB-DP-00933. Available online. In: https://publications.iadb.org/publications/english/ document/Digital-Technologies-and-Globalization-A-Survey-of- Research-and-Policy-Applications.pdf. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

COMMITTEE ON PETITIONS. 2021. “Report on the deliberations of the Committee on Petitions in 2020 (2021/2019(INI))” In: European Parliament. Available online. In: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/ doceo/document/A-9-2021-0323_EN.html. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS. 2004. Recommendation Rec (2004)11 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on legal, operational and technical standards for e-voting. Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 30 September 2004 at the 898th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies. Available online. In: https://www.coe.int/t/dgap/goodgovernance/Activities/Key-Texts/Recommendations/00Rec(2004)11_rec_adopted_en.asp. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS. 2009. Recommendation CM/Rec (2009)1 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on electronic democracy (e-democracy). Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 18 February 2009 at the 1049th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies. Available online. In: https://www.coe.int/t/ dgap/goodgovernance/Activities/Key-Texts/Recommendations/ Recommendation_CM_Rec2009_1_en_PDF.pdf. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

COUNCILOFEUROPECOMMITTEEOFMINISTERS.2017.Recommendation CM/Rec (2017)5 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on standards for e-voting. Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 June 2017 at the 1289th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies. Available online. In: https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details. aspx?ObjectID=0900001680726f6f. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

DARMAWAN, Ikhsan. 2021. “E-voting adoption in many countries: A literature review” In: Asian Journal of Comparative Politics. Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 482- 504.

HANG, Lei; KIM, Do-Hyeun. 2019. “Design and implementation of an integrated IoT blockchain platform for sensing data integrity” In: Sensors. Vol. 14, No. 19 (10), pp. 22-28.

HRATSIOTOVA, Hanna; TKACH, Konstantin; PULCHA, Dmitry. 2020. “Implementation of electronic elections in Ukraine in a pandemic. Foreign experience” In: ECONOMICS: time realities. Vol. 5, No. 51, pp. 74-96.

HRYNOV, Serhii; ZAKOMORNA, Kateryna. 2021. “Electronic voting: prospects for implementation in Ukraine and foreign experience” In: Legal Scientific Electronic Journal. Vol. 4, pp. 101-105.

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR ELECTORAL SYSTEMS. 2020. Joint Statement on Piloting Online Voting in the October 2020 Local Elections. Available online. In: https://ifesukraine.org/news/ spilna-zayava-shhodo-pilotuvannya-internet-golosuvannya-pid-chas- misczevyh-vyboriv-u-zhovtni-2020-roku/?lang=en. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

INTERNATIONAL IDEA. 2022. “Is e-voting currently used in any elections with EMB participation?” Available online. In: https://www.idea.int/ data-tools/question-view/742. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

JAFAR, Uzma; AZIZ, Mohd Juzaiddin Ab; SHUKUR, Zarina. 2021. “Blockchain for Electronic Voting System – Review and Open Research Challenges” In: Sensors. Vol. 21, pp. 58-74.

KERAMIDIS, Panagiotis; CHARALABIDIS, Yannis. 2021. “Decisive factors for success or failure of e-democracy initiatives in the information era” In: International Conference EGOV-CeDEM-ePart, Granada, Spain, pp. 11-18. Available online. In: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3049/Paper1.pdf. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

KNEUER, Marianne; DATTS, Mario. 2020. “E-democracy and the Matter of Scale. Revisiting the Democratic Promises of the Internet in Terms of the Spatial Dimension” In: Politische Vierteljahresschrift. Vol. 61, pp. 285- 308.

LIGA: ZAKON. 2011. On the Concept “Implementation of the electronic voting system in Ukraine”. Draft Law of Ukraine. No. 8656. June 10, 2011. Available online. In: http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/ JF6OG00A.html. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

LIST, Christian. 2019. “Why Free Will Is Real” In: Harvard University Press. Cambridge. Cambridge, UK.

LOMZHETS, Yuliia; DMYTRUK, Iryna; DUBINSKYI, Ihor. 2021. “Electronic (Online) Voting in Ukraine: Realities and Prospects” In: SHS Web of Conferences Vol. 100, No. 03007.

MUÑOZ, Analiza. 2022. “Towards a Secured i-Election System in the Philippines: The Development of Hybrid QR Code Technology for Sustainable Election System to Increase Voter Turnout” In: The 2021 Annual Conference of the Asian Association for Public Administration. Available online. In: DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.29221.63209. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

OFFICE FOR CITIZENS’ APPEALS OF THE VERKHOVNA RADA OF UKRAINE. 2022a. Information on the work of the Office for Citizens’ Appeals of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in 2021 with electronic petitions.Availableonline.In:https://vzvernen.rada.gov.ua/documents/ ast_v/Dov_petic/74259.html. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

OFFICE FOR CITIZENS’ APPEALS OF THE VERKHOVNA RADA OF UKRAINE. 2022b. Information on citizens ‘appeals received by the Office for Citizens’ Appeals of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in 2021 by electronic means. Available online. In: https://vzvernen.rada.gov. ua/documents/ast_v/Dov_Elektr/74258.html. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

PEREIRA, Olivier. 2021. “Individual Verifiability and Revoting in the Estonian Internet Voting System” In: Cryptology ePrint Archive. Vol. 1098. Available online. In: https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/1098.pdf. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

RIIGI TEATAJA. 2002. Riigikogu Election Act. RT I 2002, 57, 355. Available online. In: https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/ee/514112013015/ consolide/current. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

SON, Sofiya. 2021. “Transformation of election law under the epoch of digital technologies” In: Legal Scientific Electronic Journal. Vol. 2, No. 04, pp. 112-129.

TEJEDOR-ROMERO, Marino; ORDEN, David; MARSA-MAESTRE, Ivan; JUNQUERA-SANCHEZ, Javier; GIMENEZ-GUZMAN, Jose Manuel. 2021. “Distributed Remote E-Voting System Based on Shamir’s Secret Sharing Scheme” In: Electronics. Vol. 10, No. 24, pp. 30-75.

VALIMISED. 2019. “Statistics about Internet voting in Estonia” Available online. In: https://www.valimised.ee/en/archive/statistics-about- internet-voting-estonia. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

VERKHOVNA RADA OF UKRAINE. 2015. On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine “On Citizens’ Appeals” regarding electronic appeals and electronic petitions. Law of Ukraine. No. 577-VIII. Available online. In: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/577-19#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

VERKHOVNA RADA OF UKRAINE. 2017. On the Basic Principles of Cyber Security of Ukraine. Law of Ukraine. № 2163-VIII. Available online. In: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2163-19#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

VERKHOVNA RADA OF UKRAINE. 2019. Electoral Code of Ukraine. No. 396-IX. December 19, 2019. Available online. In: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/396-20#Text. Consultation date: 18/05/2022.

VOGIATZIS, Nikos. 2021. “The Past and Future of the Right to Petition the European Parliament” In: Yearbook of European Law. Vol. 40, pp. 82- 110.

XIAODONG, Liao; XIAOPING, Liu; FENG, Feng. 2019. “Research on Citizen Participation in the Implementation of Public Policy in Big Data Age” In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Vol. 1168, No. 3, pp. 1-6.

YAP, Yee-Yann; TAN, Siow-Hooi; CHOON, Shay-Wei. 2022. “Elderly’s intention to use technologies: A systematic literature review” In: Heliyon. Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. e08765.
Publicado
2022-10-11
Cómo citar
Savchenko, V., Dotsenko, O., Iashchenko, V., Boyarskyy, O., & Shemchuk, V. (2022). Legal coverage of will expression by means of information technologies: Cobertura jurídica de la manifestación de testamentos por medio de las tecnologías de la información. Cuestiones Políticas, 40(74), 224-245. https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4074.12
Sección
Derecho Público