Socio-Political Aspects of Russian Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca in the XIX-Th Century
Starting from the middle of the 16-th century, during the foreign policy expansion increase, the ethno-confessional diversity of the Russian state was steadily increasing. The imperial policy aimed at assimilating non-Russian peoples sharply raised the issue of their identity preservation. For domestic Muslims, an important factor in cultural and confessional identity provision was the preservation and development of their traditional ties with the Islamic world. Various political, economic, cultural, and other contacts maintained with the countries of the Muslim East have become the basis for the stability of the Muslim community in Russia under imperial pressure. In this system, a special role was originally played by the Hajj (Muslim pilgrimage to the holy places in the Hejaz), which the official administration had to reckon with. The aim of the proposed study is to identify socio-political aspects, socio-political conditions, and the specifics of the Hajj implementation in the 19th century. After the analysis of office documentation, travel notes of Muslim pilgrims, and expert assessments of orientalists, the authors concluded that, despite the increasing opposition from the authorities, the significance of the Hajj intensifies in the 19th century. Hajj became not only the factor of opposition to imperial acculturation, but also a channel for presentation the ideas of renewal.
COLLECTION OF CIRCULARS AND OTHER GUIDING ORDERS FOR THE DISTRICT OF THE ORENBURG MOHAMMEDAN SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY. 1836. (1836-1903). Ufa, Russia.
ELISEEV, Alexey V. 1886. Senusi Religious Union and Its Significance for Russia. St. Petersburg Gazette. St. Petersburg, Russia.
ESSAYS BY MARDJANI ON THE EASTERN PEOPLES. 2003. Publishing House. Kazan, Tatar.
FAHRUTDINOV, Rezida; FAHRUTDINOV, Billy; KUZNECOVA, Edvard. 2019. “Tourist directions and routes of the sacred and pilgrims in the Ulyanovsk region” In: Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews. Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 158-159.
GAFAROV, Aleksandr. 2019. “Educational policy of the Russian empire in the Turkistan region (The second half of the XIXTH-the beginning of the XXTH century)” In: International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering. Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 5180-5183.
GAFAROV, Anvar. 2015. “Russian Muslim Lifestyle Renovation Problems in the Modernistic Literature of the Late 19th and Early 20th Century” In: Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 178-184.
GAFAROV, Anvar; NABIEV, Rashit; FAZLIEV, Andre; NAFIKOV, Iinda. 2017. “«Muslim matter» in the mirror of public discussion (XIX-beginning of XX century)” In: Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 7S, pp. 1257-1265.
GALUZO, Petr Grigorevič. 1935. Turkestan-colony. State publishing house of the UzSSR. Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
HISTORY OF HAJJ IN RUSSIA FROM 18TH TO 21ST CENTURY. 2011. Islam.ru, July 12. Available online. : In: http://islam.ru/en/content/story/history-hajj-russia-18th-21st-century. Consultation date: 02/05/2020.
IMPERIAL RUSSIA AND THE MUSLIM WORLD (LATE 18TH – 20TH CENTURIES). 2006. Collection of Materials. M. Natalis, - 480 p.
ISHAEV, Salman. 1896. Mekka, sviashchennyi gorod musul'man (Rasskaz palomnika). Mecca, the Sacred City of the Muslims (Story of a Pilgrim), The Central Asian Herald. Sredne-Aziatskii vestnik. Ezhemesiachnyi nauchno-literaturnyi zhurnal. Noiabr.
KRYMSKY, Agafangel Efimovich; MILLER, Brian. 1903. All-Muslim University at the Azhar Mosque in Cairo. Cairo, Egypt.
LATEST NEWS. 1898. Kazan Telegraph. 1647. Kazan, Russia.
MIROPIEV, Michail. 1881. Religious and political significance of the Hajj or the sacred travels of Muhammadan to Mecca for a religious celebration. Orthodox interlocutor, Part II, 77-120, 305-330, 435-438.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN. - F. R-4767. - Inv. 1.- F. 1.- Sh. 14.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN. - F. 1. - Inv. 3.- C. 235.- Sh. 17, 51, 60, 61, 84, 99; C. 4611. Sh. 232, 236, 238.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN. - F. 199. - Inv. 1. - C. 906. - Sh. 112.
OSTROUMOV, Natalia. 1889. Sudanese Mahdi and the uprising of Sudanese Muslims that arose in 1881. Extracted from the magazine "Wanderer" (1890).
PETERS, Francis E. 1994. The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places. Princeton University Press. New Jersey, United States.
RASULEV, Bakhtiyor. 2011. Zaynullah ishan. Makalat Zainiya: Bocetos de Zainullah Ishana. Zaynullah Ishan Rasulev. AYa GROUP. Kiev, Ukraine. (In Ukrainian).
REPORT OF STAFF CAPTAIN DAVLETSHIN ABOUT HIS TRIP TO HEJAZ. 1899. Secret. – SPb,- 145 p.
SCHIELE, François. 1879. Kazan Tatars. Ethnographic sketch. Nature and people. Kazan, Russia.
SOLOVYEV, Andre. 1896. Catalog of books printed in the printing house of the Imperial Kazan University from 1800 to 1896. Kazan, Russia.
SOLOVYOV, Sergey. 1960. History of Russia since ancient times. In fifteen books. M.: Publishing house of socio-economic literature. Moscow, Russia.
SULTANOV HAJI SALIM GIREY. 1901. The sacred area of Muslims in Arabia (From the memoirs of a pilgrim). Geography. I-II, 85-144.
TASHKENT, Vildamos. 1899. Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca and Medina. Materials on Islam. Moscow, Russia.
TIMOFEEVA, Larisa; AKHMETOVA, Alma; GALIMZYANOVA, Liliya Rifkhatovna; FOMINYKH, Andre; MUNINA, Yusufu. V. 2019. “The history pages of orthodox pilgrimage: from worship to pilgrim tourism” In: Utopía y praxis latinoamericana: revista internacional de filosofía iberoamericana y teoría social. Vol. 5, pp. 32-37.