Study of the subjunctive mood in literary text using a Russian translation of Treasure Island




This study aims to examine the methods by which the subjunctive mood is translated and to identify the most frequent forms in the original literary text and its Russian translations. This study involves a complex methodology, including the continuous sampling method, frequency analytic methods, a descriptive-analytical method, and linguistic analysis of English and Russian sentences. The material for the study included complex and simple subjunctive mood sentences extracted from the original English text of Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson, and its translation to Russian by Nikolai Korneevich Chukovsky. The results present and discuss features of the subjunctive mood.



Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar los métodos por los cuales se traduce el modo subjuntivo e identificar las formas más frecuentes en el texto literario original y sus traducciones al ruso. Este estudio involucra una metodología compleja que incluye el método de muestreo continuo, métodos analíticos de frecuencia, un método analítico descriptivo y análisis lingüístico de oraciones en inglés y ruso. El material para el estudio incluía oraciones de subjuntivo complejas y simples extraídas del texto original en inglés de Treasure Island, por Robert Louis Stevenson, y su traducción al ruso por Nikolai Korneevich Chukovsky. Los resultados presentan y discuten características del modo subjuntivo.

Palabras clave

Russian, Subjunctive Mood, Translation, Treasure Island. estado de ánimo subjuntivo, ruso, traducción, Treasure Island.

Texto completo:




ALEKSEEVA, IS (2004). Introduction to translation studies, Moscow: Academy Publishing Center, p.352.

ALIMOV, VV (2015). Theory of translation: A handbook for linguists-translators, (2nd ed.). Moscow: LENAND, p.240.

BIBER, D, JOHANSSON, S, LEECH, G, CONRAD, S, & FINEGAN, E (2006). Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd, p.496.

BONK, NA, & SALTYKOVA, EM (2018). Classical grammar for English language textbooks: Rules, exercises, keys. Moscow.: Eksmo, p.320.

BREUS, EV (2001). The Theory and Practice of Translation from English into Russian: Tutorials-Moscow: URAO, pp.1-104.

CHANG, F, JANCIAUSKAS, M, & FITZ, H (2012). “Language adaptation and learning: Getting explicit about implicit learning”, in: Language and Linguistics Compass, 6(5), pp.259-278.

CHUKOVSKY, K (1935). Translated version of Treasure Islands by R.A. Stevenson. [In Russian]

CHUKOVSKY, N (1969). Tenth muse, Translation skills, 6, p.387.

DALY, C (2015). The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophical Methods (Vol. 31), Manchester: Palgrave MacMillan.

DOBRUSHINA, N (2010). Subjunctive in Russian relative clauses. Oslo studies in language, 2(1).

DUBOIS, D, PRADE, H, & SCHOCKAERT, S (2017). “Generalized possibilistic logic: foundations and applications to qualitative reasoning about uncertainty”, in: Artificial Intelligence, 252, pp.139-174.

ELLIOTT, JR (2000). Realis and irrealis: Forms and concepts of the grammaticalisation of reality.

EMETS, T, EMETS, A, & POTRIKEEVA, E (2018b). Features of representing the subjunctive mood in natural languages (on the example of the translation of short stories by S. Zweig). In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 55, p. 04008). EDP Sciences.

EMETS, TV (2012). Introduction to linguistics, Magnitogorsk: Magnitogorsk State University Press, p.131.

EMETS, TV (2017). “Linguistic and syntactic strategies for translation of Subjunctive Mood in German literary text”, in: Humanitarian and Pedagogical Research, 1, pp.129-135.

EMETS, TV, BARYSHNIKOVA, IV, TRUTNEV, AY, Suvorova, EV, & Akhmetzyanova, TL (2018a). “Logical and linguistic strategies for translating complex sentences in literary texts of natural languages”, in: XLinguae, 11(2), pp.3-16.

EVSEEVA, KV, & KOZLOVA, YA (2016). “Modality in English and Russian languages and methods of its transmission in bilingual translation”, in: International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356-5926, 1(1), pp.552-559.

FARKAS, D (1985). Intentional descriptions and the Romance Subjunctive Mood, New York: Garland Publishing.

FINE, AB, & FLORIAN JAEGER, T (2013). “Evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension”, in: Cognitive Science, 37(3), pp.578-591.

FRIEDBERG, M (2008). Literary translation in Russia: A cultural history, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, p.234.

GIVÓN, T (1994). “Irrealis and the subjunctive. Studies in Language”, in: International Journal sponsored by the Foundation “Foundations of Language, 18(2), pp.265-337.

HALL, D (2012). My Grammar lab: Advanced level: With Key, Harlow: Pearson, p.416.

HASHEMI, L & MURPHY, R (2012). English Grammar in Use: With Answers. Supplementary Exercises. Cambridge University Press.

INGGS, J (2015). “Translation and transformation: English-language children's literature in (Soviet) Russian guise”, in: International Research in Children's Literature, 8(1), pp.1-16.

KACHALOVA, KN (2018). Practical English Grammar. St. Petersburg: KARO, p.609.

KALOGEROPOULOS, P, RUSSO, JA, SULLIVAN, P, KLOOGER, M, & GUNNINGHAM, S (2020). “Re-enfranchising Mathematically-alienated Students: Teacher and Tutor Perceptions of the Getting Ready in Numeracy (G.R.I.N.) Program”, in: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 15(1), em0545

KLIMENKO, A, GORELOVA, G, KOROBKIN, V, & BIBILO, P (2017). “The Cognitive Approach to the Coverage-Directed Test Generation”, in: In Proceedings of the Computational Methods in Systems and Software (pp. 372-380). Springer, Cham.

KOPACKOVA, H, & LIBALOVA, P (2019). “Quality of Citizen Reporting Tools at Municipal Level”, in: Journal of Information Systems Engineering & Management, 4(3), em0092.

KRIVONOSOV, AT (2012). Philosophy of language. Moscow-New York, p.582.

MAHOWALD, K, JAMES, A, FUTRELL, R, & GIBSON, E (2016). “A meta-analysis of syntactic priming in language production”, in: Journal of Memory and Language, 91, pp.5-27.

MAKAROVA, EV, & PARKHAMOVICH, TV. (2018). English language/Upgrade your English grammar. Minsk: Harvest, p.448.

MIŁKOWSKI, M (2016). “Unification strategies in cognitive science”, in: Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric, 48(1), pp.13-33.

NALBANDI, H, & ZONOOZI, SJ (2019). “Determine the Impact of Market-orientated Skill Training on Satisfaction and Effectiveness of Trainees in Technical and Vocational Training: A Case Study in Western Azarbaijan Province, Iran”, in: Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 3(1), em0054.

PALMER, FR (2001). Mood and modality. Cambridge University Press.

PERVUSHIN, N (1961). PROBLEMS OF ENGLISH-RUSSIAN TRANSLATION. В помощь преподавателю русского языка в Америке/A Guide to Teachers of the Russian Language in America, 15(57), pp.8-13.

RENAAT, D, & REED, S (2001). Conditionals: A Comprehensive Empirical Analysis.

SEPEHRI, Z, & SHEIKHALIZADEH, M (2019). “Descriptions and overall safety status of sport fields in schools of Ardabil city, Iran”, in: UCT Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Research, 7(02), pp.1-5.

SHVEDOVA, NY (1980). Russkaja grammatika [Russian grammar]. Moscow: AN SSSR Publ.

STEVENSON, RL (1963). Treasure Island, Moscow: Foreign languages publishing house, p.278.

STEVENSON, RL (1999). Treasure island. Penguin.

TOURNEBIZE, R & GAUCHEREL, C (2017). “Language: A fresh concept to integrate syntactic and semantic information in life sciences”, in: Biosystems, 160, pp.1–9.

TRIPPAS, D, THOMPSON, VA, & HANDLEY, SJ (2017). “When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias”, in: Memory & cognition, 45(4), pp.539-552.

VINCE, M (2008). Macmillan English Grammar in Context Advanced (with Key and CD) London: Macmillan.

VINOGRADOV, VV (1986). Russian language (grammatical doctrine of the word) [Russkij jazyk (Grammaticheskoe uchenie o slove)].

WOLEŃSKI, J (2016). “Logic in the Light of Cognitive Science”, in: Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric, 48(1), pp.87-101.

YULE, G (2015). Oxford Practice Grammar Advanced. Oxford university press.

ZVERKHOVSKAYA, EV, & KOSICHENKO, EF (2017). English language: Grammar, theory, practice. St. Petersburg: BHV-Petersburg, p.304.

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana. Revista Internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social / Centro de Estudios Sociológicos y Antropológicos (CESA) / Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales / Universidad del Zulia-Venezuela

El único correo por el cual se reciben artículos y preguntas es

e-Mail <<>> is the only means to submission papers


 ISSN: 1316-5216 / e-ISSN: 2477-9555


Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.