Agricultural supports and farmers’ satisfaction: A latent variable application in Turkey / Apoyos agrícolas y satisfacción del agricultor: una aplicación de variable latente en Turquía / Apoios agrícolas e satisfação dos agricultores: uma aplicação variável latente na Turquia

Palabras clave: Agricultural subsidy, agricultural policy, farmer’s satisfaction, CFA, Turkey / subsidio agrícola, política agrícola, satisfacción de los agricultores, Turquía / subsídio agrícola, satisfação do agricultor, Turquia.



Agricultural supports are given with different quantities and purposes around the world, such as exemption from tax, granting subsidies or agricultural insurances, among others. These supports have a great impact but its benefits to farmers are not generally known. The influence of these supports on farmers is pointed out by evaluating the farmers’ satisfaction. In this sense, it was obtained a data from 426 producers in order to analyze the agricultural supports regarding farmer´s satisfaction. The first and second-order latent variables are analyzed by applying the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to the survey data obtained for the evaluation of farmers’ satisfaction. The factor loadings and fit index were sufficient and the structure validity and reliability of the model were ensured. The most effective variables influencing the farmers’ satisfaction related to the agricultural supports are the supports maintaining the financial structure and livestock support. Results indicate that farmers need to be supported more in terms of input use and crop production.


Los apoyos agrícolas se otorgan con diferentes cantidades y propósitos en todo el mundo tales como la exención de impuestos, el otorgamiento de subsidios o de seguros agrícolas, entre otros. Sin embargo, generalmente no se conoce cuál de los apoyos tiene un mayor impacto y es bien recibido por los agricultores. La influencia del soporte agrícola sobre los agricultores se refleja en la evaluación de la satisfacción del agricultor, la cual se analizó mediante un análisis factorial utilizando variables latentes de primer y segundo orden en una muestra de 426 agricultores. El índice de carga y ajuste del factor fue suficiente para garantizar la validez de la estructura y la confiabilidad del modelo. Las variables más efectivas que influyen en la satisfacción del agricultor en relación con el soporte agrícola son aquellos que ayudan a la estructura financiera y al apoyo ganadero. Los resultados indicaron que los agricultores necesitan soporte agrícola en términos de uso de insumos y de la producción de cultivos.


Os apoios agrícolas são concedidos para diferentes valores e finalidades em todo o mundo, como isenção de impostos, concessão de subsídios ou seguro agrícola, entre outros. Contudo, geralmente não se sabe qual dos apoios tem maior impacto e é bem recebido pelos agricultores. A influência do apoio agrícola sobre os agricultores se reflete na avaliação da satisfação dos agricultores, que foi analisada por meio de uma análise fatorial usando variáveis latentes de primeira e segunda ordem em uma amostra de 426 agricultores. O índice de carga e ajuste do fator foi suficiente para garantir a validade da estrutura e a confiabilidade do modelo. As variáveis mais eficazes que influenciam a satisfação do agricultor em relação ao apoio agrícola são aquelas que ajudam a estrutura financeira e o apoio à pecuária. Os resultados indicaram que os agricultores precisam de apoio agrícola em termos de uso de insumos e produção agrícola.


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