Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad del Zulia <p>The Journal of the Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad del Zulia is a publication of the Agronomic Research Institute of the Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad del Zulia, published since 1968 and is supported by the Universidad del Zulia, in order to disseminate the results of researchers Venezuelans and other parts of the world, related to the agricultural field. The Rev. Fac. Agron. (LUZ) publishes four issues per year, i. e., every three months, under continuous publication format (rolling pass). , with original and unpublished scientific articles, technical notes, review articles, quick communications, extensive summaries of congresses and scientific meetings related to the agricultural area for the consideration of the Editorial Committee. The journal publishes research products of high scientific quality and promotes the exchange of publications and scientific activity at the agricultural level, in the areas of Plant Production, Animal Production, Food Technology and Socioeconomics. The topics included in these areas are: agrosystem management, environment, agricultural biotechnology, meat science, milk science, rural development, agricultural economics, agricultural entomology, fertilizers, post-harvest physiology, plant physiology, physiology and animal reproduction, pastures and forages, animal and plant genetics and improvement, weeds, animal nutrition, plant pathology, agri-food safety, agri-food systems and soils.</p> en-US (Jorge Vilchez Perozo) (RevicyhLUZ) Fri, 15 Dec 2023 17:25:23 +0000 OJS 60 Resurgence of scientific research in the University of Zulia <p>Scientific research in Venezuela is still suffering the effects of the economic crisis the country is going through and the aftermath of the different adverse pandemic scenarios. The lack of budget allocation by the responsible official organisms and the little economic incentive for the university community, which represents the most dense population that develops these activities, added to the deterioration and in many cases disappearance of the facilities destined for this purpose, have caused them to decline; this has caused a decline of more than 50 % at the national level and in Universidad del Zulia, which in the not too distant past was positioned in the first place of the national universities in terms of accredited researchers in the researcher's incentive program (PEII) and in second place in scientific production.</p> <p>While it is true that the exodus of Venezuelans brought brain drain and that LUZ has been greatly affected in this particular, the brave university students who have rooted in their hearts the <em>POST NUBILA PHOEBUS</em> (After clouds, the sun) and that under an act of rebellion against adverse situations, demonstrate their sense of belonging and love for the institution, have taken the challenge to revive research at the Universidad del Zulia, demonstrate their sense of belonging and love for the institution, have taken the challenge to revive research at the Universidad del Zulia by the hand of the Consejo de Desarrollo Científico y Humanistico (CONDES) of the Red de Investigación Estudiantil de LUZ (REDIELUZ) and the various research centers living within the university.</p> <p>It has not been, nor will be, an easy road to follow, but there is always LUZ at the end of the road and it is expected that the actions being taken by the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología through the Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (ONCTI) through the census of research and development units in the country and the various calls for both records of researchers and funding for projects, represent an important help in the beginning of this arduous task. Emphasizing that from the base of each research center it is necessary the self-management of resources through alliances and inter-institutional agreements with the public and private sector.</p> <p>The administration of the School of Agronomy is contemplating the consolidation of a sustainable faculty, which will allow it to function over time with a certain economic independence in the areas of teaching, research and extension, thanks to the management of resources through strategic alliances and cooperation agreements for the provision of services and research.&nbsp; It is the task and commitment of all of us who make life in it to work to achieve this goal.</p> <p>In the Instituto de Investigaciones Agronómicas of the Facultad de Agronomía and the different laboratories attached to it, we are committed to the total reactivation, management and handling of scientific research in order to continue generating new knowledge and training high-level professionals in the agricultural sector. Among the actions to be taken are the revision and adaptation of the lines of research, encouraging the scientific community to resume the formal registration of research projects, which allows us to keep statistical control of these activities and make a diagnosis of the needs that have priority in order to provide support for the continuation of the projects. A call is currently open for the subsidy of research projects in the area of Maize, whose economic resources come from the surplus of the I Jornada Internacional de Especialidades Agronómicas en Maíz and the contribution of the company DIPROAGRO, which shows that alliances with companies and the agricultural sector is a viable alternative to strengthen research at the undergraduate and postgraduate level within the faculty.</p> <p>Now, while it is true that encouraging research at all levels is a priority, it is also a priority to ensure the dissemination of these research products that are generated within and outside the university and the country, so in that particular, we have the Revista de La Facultad de Agronomía de La Universidad del Zulia, which this year reached its fifty-fifth anniversary and whose editorial quality is meeting the most demanding standards of the international scientific environment, maintaining and obtaining new indexing in numerous prestigious indexes such as Scielo, Science Citation index, Latindex, REDIB, Dialnet, among others, and in one of the largest databases of abstracts and citations of peer-reviewed scientific literature such as Scopus, which has allowed a significant projection, visibility, scope and prestige worldwide. Since 2021 it has a completely English edition and from 2022 with a continuous publication format, minimizing waiting times for publication. All this achieved thanks to the hard work of the editorial committee led by Dr. Jorge Vilchez, thus contributing to the long-awaited resurgence of scientific research at LUZ.</p> <p>We are convinced that with good planning and by establishing strategic lines that allow us to strengthen scientific and technological productivity, we will be able to recover and even surpass the place that the Universidad del Zulia occupied in the ranking indexes in terms of scientific productivity both inside and outside the country.</p> Alexandra Vera Copyright (c) 2024 Alexandra Vera Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors regarding the spatial variability of soil organic carbon in a Mexican small watershed <p>Understanding the stocks of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and elucidating the variables influencing its spatial distribution within a small watershed are imperative for advancing targeted climate change mitigation strategies, specifically directed toward soil and water conservation. The selection of this watershed is predicated upon its three-decade-long implementation of diverse soil and water conservation practices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze land use, vegetation cover, slope and soil and water conservation practices (SCWP) as factors that influence the variability and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon in a small basin in the Mixteca Alta region of the state of Oaxaca.&nbsp; Mexico. Soil samples (77) were collected to determine SOC storage. These samples were interpolated using the QGIS Smart-Map plugin to obtain a spatial COS predictive model. Thematic maps were generated for each factor. Areal statistics, Pearson’s correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to explain COS variability. The results in the variability of SOC with respect to vegetation cover and land use, showed adult pine plantations with the highest value of SOC with 36.8 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>, followed by seasonal agriculture with 28.8 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>. The most effective management practice for storing COS was the stone terrace with 35.0 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>. Our results indicate that vegetation cover and land use complemented by soil and water conservation practices are the main drivers of SOC storage in small watersheds.</p> Olimpya Aguirre-Salado, Joel Pérez-Nieto, Carlos Aguirre-Salado, Alejandro Monterroso-Rivas Copyright (c) 2024 Olimpya Talya Aguirre-Salado, Joel Pérez-Nieto, Carlos Arturo Aguirre-Salado, Alejandro IsmaelMonterroso-Rivas Fri, 15 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular study of the “Escoba Blanca” variety of Sesamum indicum L. used in Paraguay <p>The high quality of sesame seeds originating in the country has led Paraguay to be among the main exporters. Of the varieties available in Paraguayan territory, the most widespread is ‘‘<em>Escoba Blanca’’</em>, which, possibly due to the multiplication process, could promote changes in its allele frequency, diversity, and genetic purity. This work was carried out, aiming to determine the genetic differentiation between 50 populations/seedbeds/banks from seven Paraguayan companies collecting <em>‘‘</em>Escoba Blanca<em>’’</em> sesame, using microsatellite markers. These seven banks/companies/cooperatives collect and represent samples from all the producers/seedbeds located in different departments of the Eastern and Western Region (Chaco) of the country, with whom they work, market, and collect sesame. Plant tissue was obtained to extract DNA, from seedlings planted especially for the purpose, using all the included samples/accessions. Six microsatellite markers were used: GBssrsa184, GBssrsa123, GBssrsa182, GBssrsa108, GBssrsa08, and GBssrsa72. The following were calculated: number and frequency of alleles, distance/groupings, differentiation between populations, and their genetic structure. The mean number of alleles per <em>locus</em> ranged from 1.33 to 3.00. In the markers, GBssrsa184 and GBssrsa108, three populations presented a higher frequency of alleles. The populations examined exhibited a wide degree of genetic differentiation between them, with the identification of four groups, with greater and less purity respectively.</p> Roberto Martínez-López, Walter Esfrain Pereira, Andrea Arrua, Danilo Fernández , Liz Centurión Copyright (c) 2024 Roberto Martínez-López, Walter Esfrain Pereira, Andrea Alejandra Arrua, Danilo Fernández Ríos, Liz Mariela Centurión Fri, 09 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of beneficial microorganisms on the agronomic behavior of potato crop cv. “Bicentenaria” <p>The excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes alterations in soil microbial activity, environmental pollution and high production costs in potato cultivation (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.). One way to avoid this effect is with the use of beneficial microorganisms, due to their ability to capture atmospheric nitrogen, produce growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid and solubilize inorganic phosphorus from insoluble compounds, which in turn time improves crop yields. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the beneficial microorganisms as biofertilizers on growth and yield of potato crop. In a population of 1,600 potato plants cv. “Bicentenaria” four treatments were evaluated: <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> (0.5 g.L<sup>-1</sup>), <em>Glomus</em> spp. (30 g.plant<sup>-1</sup>), efficient microorganisms (EM) (50 mL.L<sup>-1</sup>) and a control treatment (no application of microorganisms). A completely randomized experimental design with four repetitions per treatment was used. The effect of the treatments was evaluated using vegetative and reproductive variables. It was evident that the treatment with <em>T. harzianum</em> significantly favored the rest of the treatments in plant height at 90 days (43.60 cm), tuber weight (154 g) and yield (57.13 t.ha<sup>-1</sup>). The use of <em>Glomus</em> spp. and EM, had only a partial effect on the growth of the plants. The treatment with <em>T. harzianum</em> could represent an ecological agricultural alternative for potato production.</p> Pedro Flores, Betsabe Leon Copyright (c) 2024 Pedro Edwin Flores, Betsabe Leon Ttacca Sun, 18 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity and productive potential of timber trees in cocoa agroforestry systems in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala <p>Timber production in agroforestry systems can improve environmental and economic sustainability, especially for families living in rural areas. Despite its importance in Guatemala, little is known about the potential of wood and its contribution to the sustainability of traditional agroforestry systems. This study aims to analyze the timber resources in cocoa agroforestry systems (CAFS) of different ages, evaluating variables such as floristic composition, species diversity, and the potential to obtain timber from the species present in the evaluated CAFS. Twenty temporary sampling plots of 2,500 m<sup>2</sup> were established, and dendrometric variables were measured in all plots. Species occurrence was statistically analyzed by cross-tabulation and Pearson's Chi-square test <em>(</em><em>χ</em><em><sup>2</sup></em><em>)</em> to determine species' frequency distribution among the evaluated CAFS ages. Eight hundred twenty-seven trees of 38 species belonging to 19 families were identified. The most represented species in the age range of the evaluated CAFS were <em>Gliricidia sepium</em> (35.07 %), <em>Swietenia macrophylla</em> (19.11 %), and <em>Inga sapindoides</em> (7.62 %). The total shade trees occupied a basal area of 33.29 m<sup>2</sup>, and a total volume of 352.35 m<sup>3</sup> was recorded, of which 148.9 m<sup>3</sup> were for commercial use. The most frequent uses of the wood were firewood (38.21 %), thin plank (30.23 %), and poles (22.85 %), while the use of thick plank was the least common (8.71 %). The CAFS in the studied area are characterized by a wide diversity of shade tree species. These results provide a solid basis for promoting sustainable practices that foster the productivity and preservation of these systems, thus contributing to the sustainability and well-being of farmers.</p> Carlos Villanueva-González, José Ruiz-Chután, Zbynek Polesny, Marie Kalousova, Cristóbal Villanueva, Bohdan Lojka Copyright (c) 2024 Carlos Enrique Villanueva-González, José Alejandro Ruiz-Chután, Zbyněk Polesný, Marie Kalousova, Cristóbal Villanueva, BohdanLojka Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of inorganic fertilization on production parameters of two varieties of sweet potato <p>In order to determine the effect of inorganic fertilization treatments on the productive behavior of the sweetpotato varieties "INIAP-Toquecita" and "INIAP-Buena Vista", this research was carried out during the dry season (June–December 2022) at the Estación Experimental Portoviejo del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias-INIAP, in the Colón parish, canton Portoviejo, province of Manabí, Ecuador. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications, and the following variables were analyzed: percent yield, total number of guides per plant, length of guides, mass of 100 guides, foliage yield, and number and yield of commercial roots. The inorganic fertilization treatments under study were: 1. N+P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>+K<sub>2</sub>O+S+Mg+B; 2. N+P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>+K<sub>2</sub>O+S+Mg+B+Zn+Mn+Fe; 3. 50 % more N+P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>+K<sub>2</sub>O+S+Mg+B with respect to treatment 1; 4. N+P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>+K<sub>2</sub>O; and 5. no fertilizers (control). It was evidenced that the inorganic fertilization treatments implemented on the variety "INIAP-Buena Vista" outperformed the results of the control, while treatments 1 and 2 of inorganic fertilization implemented on the variety "INIAP-Toquecita" outperformed the control. It was observed that the most favorable scenario for maximizing the yield of commercial tuberous roots in the variety "INIAP-Buena Vista" was treatment 3, which had 50 % more macro and micronutrients per hectare added to the soil with respect to treatment 1. The varieties evaluated did not show nutritional deficiencies during the production cycle (120 days).</p> Gloria Cobeña , Eddie Zambrano, Favio Ruilova , Xavier Ortiz, Chang Hwan Copyright (c) 2024 Gloria Annabell Cobeña Ruiz, Eddie Ely Zambrano Zambrano, Favio Leonardo Ruilova Narváez, Xavier Fernando Ortiz Dueñas, Chang Hwan Park Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Association of gene expression with blood metabolites and fatty acid profile in lambs <p>Some agricultural byproducts can be used as viable alternatives in animal feed. Therefore, the effect of the inclusion of avocado meal and sunflower oil on the profile of fatty acids, blood metabolites and the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in lambs was evaluated. Three treatments were evaluated: 0 % control, 10 % avocado meal and 10 % sunflower oil for 84 days. It was found that including avocado meal in the diet increased the amount of blood glucose and also globulin, but decreased creatinine and Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase, compared to the addition of sunflower oil where the content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and VLDL decreased. and R A/G. There was no difference for muscle fat percentage. The concentration of fatty acids C20:0, C20:1 and C23:0 was lower with avocado meal, without affecting the MUFA and UFA values, the UFA/SFA ratio and the saturation index. The inclusion of avocado meal caused a change in the expression of the ACACA, FASN, SCD, FASBP3, PPARG and SREBF1 genes in the <em>Longisimus thoracis</em> muscle, there was a positive association between glucose and the FASBP3 gene, also of HDL with the PPARG gene, MUFA, proteins and indices of desaturation of fatty acids were associated with genes such as SCD, FASN, SREBF1 and ACACA The inclusion of avocado meal is an alternative to modify genetic expression, also to reduce very low density cholesterol values in the blood.</p> Clemente Lemus , Job Bugarín, Gilberto Lemus , Javier Rodríguez , Gabriela Peña, José Loya Copyright (c) 2024 Clemente Lemus Flores, Job Oswaldo Bugarín Prado, Gilberto Lemus Avalos, Javier Germán Rodríguez Carpena, Gabriela Rosario Peña Sandoval, José Lenin Loya Olguin Sun, 04 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Factors affecting global quality of milk produced in a semi-arid Algerian steppe zone <p>The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of the zone, season and collecting point on the quality of milk produced in a semi-arid steppe zone of Algeria. Throughout the four seasons of the year and separated into five zones, this study was done on 334 farms and 25 collectors. It involved 1336 milk samples. The obtained results showed that the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of milk produced in semi-arid zones is influenced by the zone, season, and collecting point. The collecting point behaves similarly to the season, except for pH. They showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) for <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> to a very highly significant one (p ≤ 0.001) for all other physico-chemical characteristics (acidity, density, freezing point, wetting, fat, protein and total solids) and microbiological parameters (thermo-tolerant coliforms, aerobic germs at 30°C, <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> and <em>Salmonella</em>). On the other hand, the effect of the zone was variable. It is significant (p ≤ 0.05) for <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, highly significant for freezing point and wetting, and very highly significant for the other parameters, except for fat content and <em>Salmonella</em> which were not influenced by the zone. Among other things, pH was not affected by the collection point. This variability in milk’s quality is the result of above mentioned factors, either considered independently or in combination. The collection point highlights the mixing effect. The season acts directly through its temperature (condition of transport and storage of milk) or indirectly on the feeding of the animals and the area directly by its climate or indirectly through its plant cover.</p> Nabila Kara, Benalia Yabrir, Abbes Laoun Copyright (c) 2024 Nabila Kara, Benalia Yabrir, Abbes Laoun Sun, 04 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Annona muricata L. fruits located in Manabí, Ecuador <p>The mesoendocarp of <em>Annona muricata</em> L. (Annonaceae) has essential minerals, ascorbic acid, dietary fiber, polyphenols, and acetogenins in its composition, which evidences the nutraceutical benefits of this fruit tree. This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of <em>A. muricata</em> fruits located in Manabí, Ecuador. The content of vitamin C, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and the presence of acetogenins were determined. It was observed that the minerals potassium, calcium, sodium, zinc, magnesium, and iron are the major components present in soursop pulp ash. Likewise, relevant content of vitamin C (26.64 mg AA.100 g<sup>-1</sup> pulp), total polyphenols (398.79 mg EAG.100 g<sup>-1</sup> pulp), flavonoids (192.20 mg EQ.100 g<sup>-1</sup> pulp), and high antioxidant activity (318.90 mmol equivalents of trolox.100 g<sup>-1</sup> pulp) were evidenced in the fruits of <em>A. muricata.</em> The ethanolic extracts obtained from the fruit when applying the Kedde test, presented a pink ring, which is an unequivocal indicator of the presence of acetogenins, which have a proven antineoplasic effect. The mesoendocarp of <em>A. muricata</em> located in Manabí, Ecuador has an important content of bioactive compounds: essential minerals (K, Ca, Zn, Mg), vitamin C, polyphenols, presence of acetogenins and high antioxidant activity, properties that reduce the risk of degenerative diseases and cellular aging. Therefore, its consumption is recommended in the daily diet as fresh and processed fruit because it constitutes a valuable nutritional and therapeutic alternative.</p> Cecilia Párraga, Fernando Rincón-Acosta, Roy Barre-Zambrano, Jhon Vera-Cedeño, Plinio Vargas, Freddy Mendoza Copyright (c) 2024 Cecilia Párraga, Fernando Rincón-Acosta, Roy Barre-Zambrano, Jhon Vera-Cedeño, Plinio Vargas, Freddy Mendoza Rivadeneira Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Typology of production units and livestock technologies for adaptation to drought in Sinaloa, Mexico <p><span class="fontstyle0">Drought as an effect of climate change affects the productivity and sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this study was to analyze how technological land management for adaptation to climate change adopted by livestock farmers in southern Sinaloa, Mexico, corresponds to the typologies identified in the study area. A non-probabilistic sampling was applied, selecting 50 production units (UP) in six municipalities of Sinaloa, whose information was analyzed by cluster analysis and descriptive statistics. It was identified three livestock typologies. Cluster 1 (46 %), was defined as subsistence since its production units (PU) have few animals and showed the smallest total surface area, the producers are the oldest and use the shade in paddocks and the adjustment of stocking rates as drought mitigation practices. Cluster 2 (46 %), showed the medium productive behavior, conformed by younger producers whose PU showed a larger area of crops and rangeland, this group adopted stocking rate adjustment, forage conservation and species diversification as mitigation measures. Cluster 3 (8 %) showed the highest total area, livestock inventory and productivity levels; drought mitigation decisions are focused on stocking rate adjustment and forage conservation. The study identified mitigation practices related to land use from the farmers’ point of view. These results can be used to conduct studies in similar environments and to scale adaptation measures for climate change from the local level and by type of farmer</span></p> Venancio Cuevas-Reyes, Alfredo Loaiza, Obed Gutiérrez, Germán Buendía, Cesar Rosales-Nieto Copyright (c) 2024 Venancio Cuevas-Reyes, Alfredo Loaiza Meza, Obed Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Germán Buendía Rodríguez, Cesar Rosales-Nieto Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000