Political Will Of The Mandate Of The Covenant In Umayyad Period

  • Imad Tali Mahdi Al Nasiri


The commandments are immortal living documents in which the forerunner provides the summary of his experiences, and charts for him the proper paths he takes in his life and the issues and problems he faces. It is an art that reflects another aspect of the eloquence of rulers and men of politics in the field of prose, as well as the contents, experiences, and outlooks that make an impor- tant contribution to crystallizing the strings and milestones of political thought during this important era in the history of Islam. The commandment is a way to advise their guardians and their successors, in which they draw the political approach and it appears that the impact of the mandate of the covenant on the end of the Umayyad rule began when he took over the reigns of the unworthy of this great responsibility, which is the caliphate, and we reached this study to some important results, the most prominent of which is the divisions within the Umayyad effect Great in the deterioration of relations between them and the increase in the gap and problems between the brother and the uncle and the nephew, and the problem arose from the beginning when Muawiyah an- nounced the mandate of the covenant to his son Yazid, but it was magnified when he accumulated and sounded the alarm of the fall of the Umayyad state.

Biografía del autor/a

Imad Tali Mahdi Al Nasiri
Assist. Prof. Dr. Al-Iraqia University/College of Arts/History Dept.


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)64)) Ubayd Allah bin Ka`b al-Numayri: He is one of the properties of Muawiyah and

the second year of migration and was said in the year of the trench he was born in Taif and did not see the Messenger of God because the Messenger had denied his father the ruling to Taif and did not He returns to Mecca ex- cept during the the chief adviser to Ibn Ziyad of the people of Iraq housing Basra. See: al-Tabari, the Gentiles and Kings, part 3, p. 400; Ibn Asaker, History of the City of Damascus, vol. 38, p. 211; Ibn Katheer, beginning and end, Meg 4, c 8, p. 144.

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)66)) Marwan bin Al-Hakam bin Abi Al-Aas bin Umaya bin Abdul Shams bin Abdul Manaf bin Qusay, his nickname Abu Abdul-Malik, was born in the era of the Messenger reign of Uthman bin Affan, and the Com- mander of the Faithful Ali, peace be upon him, said one day: Woe to you and the woe to the nation of Muhammad from you and from your sons if your armor worsened, and Marwan was told to him a false thread and his Muawiyah commanded the city command then he gathered him to Mecca and Medina, he received the ruling after Muawiyah bin Yazid year (65 AH / 684 AD), and perished in the same year as his wife named him. Ibn Abd al-Barr, Absorption in Knowledge of Friends, pp. 663-665; Al-Dhahabi, Biographies of the Flags of the Nobles, Vol. 4, p. 464.

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)68)) Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, who was Abu Abdullah and was said Aba Muhammad was born before the death of the Prophet, his mother Roman bint al-Hath ibn Ghanem al-Kananiyya, died in (53 AH / 672 AD). See: Ibn Abd al-Barr, comprehension in the knowledge of the companions, p. 412; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil in History, Vol. 3, p. 63; Al-Thahabi, Bi- ographies of the Flags of the Nobles, Vol. 4, p. 92; Ibn Katheer, The Begin- ning and End, Vol. 4, Vol. 8, p. 112.

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)71)) Al-Muhajir: He is the brother of Abdul Rahman bin Khalid bin Al- Waleed. He was among the properties of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib. Look- ing: Ibn Abd al-Barr, Absorption in the Knowledge of Friends, p. 415; Ibn Asaker, History of the City of Damascus, vol. 61, p. 262; Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Explaining the Approach to Rhetoric, vol. 11, p. 69; Al-Safadi, Al-Wafi with Deaths, Vol. 18, p. 86.

)72)) Nations and Kings, Vol. 3, p. 363; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil in Histo- ry, Vol. 3, p. 10.

)73)) History of Khalifa bin Khayyat, p. 161; Al-Dhahabi, History of Is- lam, Part 4, p. 150

)74)) Abdullah bin Safwan bin Umayya was killed with Abdullah bin Al- Zobayr by Marwan bin Al-Hakam in the year 73 AH. Looking: Ibn Abd al- Barr, Comprehension in Knowledge of Companions, p. 463; Ibn Al-Ath- eer, Lion of the Forest in Knowledge of Companions, part 2, p. 623.

)75)) Al-Nisaburi ruler, Al-Mustadrak Al-Sahihin, Vol. 3, p. 476; Ibn Abd Al-Bar, Al-Istissam, p. 412; Ibn Assaker, History of the City of Damascus, Vol. 35, p. 36; Al-Safadi Al-Wafi Al-Fiat, Vol. 18, p. 96.

)76)) Ibn Saad, Muhammad ibn Mun`ya al-Zuhri, (d. 230 AH / 844 AD), the major classes, Presented by: Ihsan Abbas, Dar Sader, (Beirut, 1405 AH / 1984 AD), c 4, p. 182; Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil in history, c 3, p. 47 Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Fath Al-Bari, Vol. 13, p. 60.

)77)) The History of Khalifa, p. 160; Ibn Utham, Al-Fotouh, c. 4, p. 336; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil in History, part 3, p. 49; Al-Thahabi, History of Islam, c. 4, p. 149; Al-Aqili, Yazid, p. 21.

)78)) Ibn Khayyat, The History of Khalifa, p. 161; Ibn Atham, Al-Fot- ouh, Vol. 4, 341-343; Ibn Abd Rabu, Al-Aqd Al-Fareed, Vol. 4, p. 163; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil in History, Vol. 3, pp. 50-51; Al-Thahabi, History of Islam, C 4, p. 149.

)79)) Abdullah bin Al-Zubair bin Al-Awam bin Khuwaylid bin Usaid bin Abdul-Azzi bin Qusay al-Quraishi al-Asadi, who is Abu Bakr or Bakir and his other nickname Abu Khubayb, who is the eldest son of Al-Zubayr, whose mother Asma bint Abi Bakr participated in the sentences against the Commander of the Faithful Ali In the caliphate after the death of Muawi- yah bin Yazid in the year 65 AH, Marwan bin Al-Hakam killed him in 73 AH when he was 73 years old. Looking: Ibn Abd al-Barr, Comprehension in Knowledge of Companions, pp. 452-453; Al-Thahabi, Biographies of the Nobles Flags, Vol. 4, p. 410

)80)) Ibn Khayyat, The History of Khalifa, p. 161; Ibn Atham, Al-Fotouh, c. 4, p. 343; Ibn Abd Rabu, Al-Aqd Al-Fareed, c. 4, p. 163; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil in History, c. 3, pp. 50-51; Al-Thahabi, History of Islam, c. 4, P. 149.

)81)) Ibn Abd al-Barr, Absorption in the Knowledge of Friends, p. 412; Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil in History, part 3, p. 63; al-Dhahabi, biographies of noble flags, vol. 4, p. 92; Ibn Kathir, beginning and end, vol. 4, vol. 8, p. 112.

)82)) For more details, see: Al-Douri, Abdulaziz, Islamic Systems, Dar Al-Kutub for Printing, (Baghdad, 1988), pp. 40 and beyond.

)83)) Baydoun, Ibrahim, The Features of Political Currencies in the First Hijri Century (Beirut, 1979), p. 149.

)84)) Al-Tabari mentioned two first narratives that did not mention Muaw- iyah’s opinion of the Arab victory, such as the Hejaz, Iraq, and the Levant, and mentioned his opinion of Abd al-Rahman bin Abi Bakr, and we find it in the second narration, mentioning the Arab Al-Imsar without mentioning Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abi Bakr, and they were united by Ibn Al-Atheer- Tareeh al-Muluk, vol. 5, pp. 322-323; al-Kamil, c. 4,6 p. Looking: Ibn al-Jawzi, who is regular in the news of kings and nations, achieved it and presented to him: Professor Dr. Suhail Zakar, Dar Al-Fikr for Printing, (Beirut, 1995), part 4, p. 1491

)85)) The same source, Part 4, pp. 1491-1492.

)86)) Al-Dhahabi, Shams al-Din Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Othman (d. 748 AH), biographies of the nobles’ flags, under: Salah al-Din al-Munajjid, (Cairo, 1955 AD), part 4, p. 139.

)87)) Ibn Al-Atheer, Vol. 4, p. 130. See: Ibn Katheer, The Beginning and the End, vol. 8, pp. 237-238.

)88)) Ibn Abd Rabu. The Unique Contract, Part 1, p. 49

)89)) Ibn Katheer, The Beginning and the End, vol. 9, p. 64.

)90)) This text is taken from Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, 4c, pp. 391-392. )91)) Khalifa bin Khayyat, History of Khalifa, c, 1 pp. 270-271; Ibn ‘Utham al-Kufi, Kitab al-Futuh, 7c, pp. 201-20; Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, c. 4 pp. Beginning and news in the days of Arabs, Persians and Berbers, and those of their time with the greatest authority, known for the history of Ibn Khaldoun, Jamal Foundation for Printing and Publishing, (Beirut, 1979), c 3, pp. 127-128; Ibn Katheer, the beginning and the end, c 9, p. 67. (92)The text of this part is with Ibn Utham as follows: “And look at my Muslim son, may God protect him if he came from the land of the Ro- mans, so know him the right of jihad for the sake of God, and also know my brother Muhammad bin Marwan his right and his age, and honor the pilgrims between Yusuf as he brought you to the country, and humiliate the people to you, And hold the arches for you and trample the necks of the Arabs.

)93)) This passage from the will is from Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, 4/518. (94) Al-Tabari, History of the Apostles and Kings, Part 8, p. 14. Al-Walid’s editorial was reported by Al-Yaqoubi, History of Al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 2, p. 283; Al-Masoudi, 95) Mourouj Al-Thahab, c. 3, p. 170; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, c. 4, p. 522; and Ibn Khaldun, Al-Abr, c 3, p. 129.

) 95)) Khalifa bin Khayyat, History, Part 1, pp. 313-314; Al-Thahabi, Bi- ographies of the Nobles’ flags, Part 4, p. 348.

)96)) Al-Masoudi, Mourouj Al-Thahab, Vol. 3, p. 1744. This opening also exists “with Ibn Katheer, The Beginning and the End,” Vol. 9, p. 179. )97)) Ibn Qutaybah The Imamate and Politics, Part 2, p. 80; Al-Qalqashan- di, Subuh al-Ashi, Part 9, p. 360. It is found by Ibn Khaldun, Al-Abr, vol. 3, p. 74. A brief commandment that reads: “In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. This is a book from Abdullah Suleiman, the Commander of the Faithful to Omar bin Abdul Aziz. I have followed the caliphate after me, and after you Yazid bin Abdul Malik. Hear and obey. Fear God and do not disagree.

)98)) Ibn Khaldun, The Lessons, Vol. 3, p. 74. This paragraph is found in Al-Masoudi, Mourouj Al-Zahab, Part 3, p. 185. With a bit of deletion and addition. This text is found by Ibn Katheer, the beginning and the end, 9, p. 199.

)99)) Al-Masoudi, Meadows of Gold, Vol. 3, p. 185.

)100)) Al-Kamil in History, vol. 5, p. 63, and see also, Ibn Katheer, The Beginning and the End, Vol. 9, p. 198.

)101)) Ibn Al-Jawzi, biography and titles of Omar bin Abdulaziz, Tah: Al- Sayed Al-Jumaili, Al-Hilal Library, (Cairo, 1985) p. 277. There is a brief will from each of Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, c. 5, p. 67; Ibn Khaldun, Al- Abr, c 3, P. 199.

)102)) Ibn Katheer, The Beginning and the End, vol. 9, p. 199.

)103)) Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, Vol. 4, p. 165; anonymous author, El-Ay- oun and Al-Hadaek, p. 64.

(104) Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, Vol. 4, p. 66.

(105) Al-Yaqoubi, History of Al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 3, p. 54.

(106) Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, vol. 5, p. 178.

(107) Al-Yaqoubi, History of Al-Yaqoubi, Vol. 3, p. 54.

(108) Al-Isfahani, Al-Aghani, vol. 6, p. 102; anonymous author, El-Ay- oun and Al-Hadaek, p. 81.

(109) Al-Balazari, Fattuh al-Balad, p. 310; Al-Tabari, Tareekh, Vol. 7, p. 209; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, Vol. 4, p. 256.

(110) Al-Isfahani, Al-Agani, vol. 6, p. 202.

(111) Al-Tabari, History, C 7, p. 217; Anonymous author, El-Ayoun and Al-Akhbar, p. 123.

(112) Al-Azdi, Abu Zakaria Yazid bin Muhammad (d. 334 AH / 945 CE), History of Mosul, investigation: Dr. Ali Habiba, Cairo, 1967 AD, p. 52; Ibn Asaker, History of Damascus, c 17, p. 464.

(113) Anonymous, Al-Ayyoun wa Al-Hadaek, p. 81

(114) Honorary Literature in the Sultan, p. 115.

(115) Al-Walid bin Yazid bin Abdul-Malik did not take over the caliphate immediately after his father for a younger year, when he was 15 years old, says al-Qalqashandi, who assumed it a year (126 AH / 743AD), Subh al- Asha, c 3, p. 257.

(116) Al-Asfahani, Al-Aghani, vol. 6, pp. 102-103; Ibn Al-Atheer, al-Ka- mil, vol. 4, p. 256.

(117) Ibn Khayyat, History of Khalifa bin Khayyat, part 2, p. 550; Ibn Al-Atheer, the same source, c. 5, p. 286; Al-Suyuti, History of the Caliphs, p. 350.

(118) Ibn Khayyat, History of Khalifa Ibn Khayyat, part 2, p. 551; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, vol. 5, p. 287; Al-Suyuti, History of the Caliphs, p. 350.

(119) Al-Tabari, History, vol. 8, p. 320.

(120) Ibn Qutaybah, Imamate and Politics, p. 160; Al-Masoudi, Maruj Al-Thahab, part 3, p. 213; Ibn Al-Atheer, Al-Kamil, vol. 4, p. 264; Al-Suyuti, History of the Caliphs, p. 205.

(121) Yazid was called (the deficient) because people and soldiers lacked their livelihoods after Al-Walid bin Yazid bin Abdul Malik increased them, and when Al-Waleed was killed, Yazid decreased this increase and returned their gifts to what they were during the days of Hisham Ibn Abdul-Malik, and the first one he called the deficient was Marwan Ibn Muhammad, al- Tabari, the same source, c 2, p. 1837; Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, c 4, p. 269.

(122) Al-Tabari, History, C 9, p. 220.

(123) Ibn Abd Rabu, Al-Aqd Al-Farid, Vol. 2, p. 247; Al-Qalqashandi, Subuh al-Aasha, Vol. 3, p. 258.

(124) He removed himself when a competitor from his household ap- peared, al-Qalqashandi, Sobh al-Asha ‘, part 3, p. 258; al-Suyuti, History of the Caliphs, p. 203.

(125) It is the Qasar of Diyar Mudar, Yaqut al-Hamwi, previous source, c 3, pp. 241-242, and on the transmission of Marwan bin Muhammad to Harran is seen: Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, c 4, pp. 284-286.

(126) It was the battle that took place between the army of Suleiman bin Hisham and the army of Marwan bin Muhammad at Ain al-Jar (Anjar) between Baalbek and Damascus, and this battle lasted days in which Sulei- man was defeated and fled with a number of Yamaniah to Damascus, Ibn Al-Atheer, the same source, c 4, p. 283; And on the position of (Ain al- Jarr), which Noah, peace be upon him, is said to have ridden in the ark, the Ruby of Hamwi, Glossary of Countries, c 4, pp. 177 and c 6, p. 254.

(127) He is Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas bin Abd al-Muttalib, the guardian of the caliphate for a period of four years and eight months, his mother: Rita bint Abdullah bin Abd al-Madan al-Harithiya, died in Anbar in the year (136 AH / 754 AD) and his age (33) Years), Ibn Saad, the Great Classes, c 4, p. 1 and beyond; Al-Masoudi, Mourouj Al-Thahab, c 3, p. 251; Ibn Al-Atheer, Lion of the Forest, c 3, p. 109 and beyond.

(128) Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, part 4, pp. 327-329.

(129) It is located near Mosul in a land with valleys and mountains, Yaqout al-Hamwi, Mujam Al-Baladin, vol. 4, p. 264.

(130) Ibn ‘Utham al-Kufi, Kitab al-Futuh, vol. 8, p. 184.

(131) It is a village of Balashmounin, and the name of four villages in Egypt in which Marwan bin Muhammad was killed. See: Yaqout al-Ham- wi, the same source, part 1, p. 509.

(132) Ibn Qutaybah, Imamate and Politics, Part 2, p. 288; Al-Isfahani, Al-Aghani, Part 4, p. 92.

Cómo citar
Mahdi Al Nasiri, I. T. (2019). Political Will Of The Mandate Of The Covenant In Umayyad Period. Opción, 35, 1009-1042. Recuperado a partir de https://produccioncientificaluz.org/index.php/opcion/article/view/31938