Calidad microbiológica del agua subterránea como riesgo epidemiológico en la producción de enfermedad diarreica infantil. Revisión Sistemática

  • José Manuel Piguave-Reyes Centro Especializado en Diagnóstico y tratamiento “Muñoz” Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico. Shushufindi http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6181-0555
  • Maribel Josefina Castellano-González Universidad del Zulia. Facultad de Medicina. Escuela de Bioanálisis. Departamento de Microbiología. Cátedra de Bacteriología General. Maracaibo. Zulia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1992-8349
  • Aida Monserrate Macías-Avia Universidad Estatal del Sur de Manabí. Jipijapa. Manabí. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5290-4317
  • Franklin Antonio Vite-Solórzano Universidad Técnica de Manabí. Portoviejo. Manabí http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6732-7994
  • Martín Darío Ponce-Pibaque Distrito de Salud 21D04, Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico. Shushufindi http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8557-3489
  • Jaime Arturo Ávila-Ávila Centro de Responsabilidad Social “Jorge Cajas Garzon”, Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico. Shushufindi http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9858-7780
Palabras clave: Diarrea infantil, agua subterránea, calidad del agua, indicadores biológicos

Resumen

El agua de consumo humano y su calidad son determinantes para la salud pública. Esta revisión pretende recopilar y analizar información acerca de la relación entre la enfermedad diarreica en niños menores de cinco (5) años y la contaminación de las fuentes de agua subterránea. Se consultaron las bases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, SciELO y Google Scholar, sin limitación en fechas de publicación; utilizando los descriptores: agua subterránea, diarrea, enfermedad gastrointestinal infantil, contaminación microbiana, calidad del agua, diarrea infantil, agua potable, técnicas moleculares y técnicas bioquímicas, analizándose un total de ciento sesenta y nueve (169) publicaciones. Se encontró relación entre la contaminación microbiana del agua subterránea y la diarrea infantil. El agua subterránea se contamina debido a fugas de fosas sépticas, métodos inadecuados de manejo de desechos y escorrentías de agua de lluvia, determinando la prevalencia de diarrea infantil. De allí, la importancia de monitorear la calidad del agua como factor de riesgo, con la detección y cuantificación de bioindicadores, mediante métodos rutinarios y novedosos, e incorporar intervenciones dirigidas a mejorar la accesibilidad a fuentes de agua controladas y la educación sanitaria en la búsqueda de asegurar la protección del agua y la disminución en la prevalencia de la diarrea infantil. Esta revisión está registrada en PROSPERO bajo el número ID 129254

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Publicado
2019-12-01
Cómo citar
1.
Piguave-Reyes JM, Castellano-González MJ, Macías-Avia AM, Vite-Solórzano FA, Ponce-Pibaque MD, Ávila-Ávila JA. Calidad microbiológica del agua subterránea como riesgo epidemiológico en la producción de enfermedad diarreica infantil. Revisión Sistemática. Kasmera [Internet]. 1 de diciembre de 2019 [citado 10 de abril de 2021];47(2):153-7. Disponible en: https://produccioncientificaluz.org/index.php/kasmera/article/view/29868
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