DEPÓSITO LEGAL ZU2020000153  
ISSN 0041-8811  
E-ISSN 2665-0428  
Revista  
de la  
Universidad  
del Zulia  
Fundada en 1947  
por el Dr. Jesús Enrique Lossada  
Ciencias  
Exactas,  
Naturales  
y de la Salud  
Año 14 N° 40  
Mayo - Agosto 2023  
Tercera Época  
Maracaibo-Venezuela  
REVISTA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DEL ZULIA. 3ª época. Año 14, N° 40, 2023  
Roman Oleksenko et al/// Metaphysical Portrait of Melitopol in the Symbolic Circle … 205-221  
Metaphysical Portrait of Melitopol in the Symbolic Circle "Honey -  
Milk - Water" (The Problem of Symbolic Resources in Tourist  
Activities)  
Roman Oleksenko*  
Yevheni Bortnykov**  
Eduard Kryvolapov***  
Vlada Bilohur****  
Eduard Kliuienko*****  
Liudmyla Radchenko******  
ABSTRACT  
The purpose of the proposed research is to create a metaphysical portrait sketch of Melitopol in the  
symbolic circle "honey - milk - water" in the context of attracting symbolic resources problem in  
tourism. In an intensive way, and following the strengthening of homo viator phenomenon in the  
global world, research in the touristic field and philosophy of tourism are increasingly turning their  
attention to the "internal resource", including in this concept, in addition to natural and cultural-  
historical, also symbolic resource. The work uses such methods as dialectical and metaphysical, the  
principle of comprehensiveness of research, the general logical method, and other methods of  
scientific research. Tourist legend as an applied direction can become an effective marketing  
mechanism, as a result of which it is possible, using a symbolic resources variety and tools, to create  
humanitarian and social development perspectives, agreed and identified through analysis of  
mythological structures and conceptual shells for harmonious and effective development of these  
territories. In this aspect, tourism as one of the mass culture branches will produce tourist flows  
directed to previously elaborated territorial brands.  
KEY WORDS: Metaphysical portrait, palimpsest, spatial myth, symbolism, cultural place,  
philosophy of tourism, tourism, symbolic tourist resource, tourist legend.  
Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Zaporizhizhya, Ukraine. ORCID ID:  
*Zaporizhizhya National University, Zaporizhizhya, Ukraine. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9602-  
*** Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Zaporizhizhya, Ukraine. ORCID ID:  
*
Recibido: 06/02/2023  
Aceptado: 10/04/2023  
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Retrato metafísico de Melitópol en el círculo simbólico "Miel - Leche -  
Agua" (el problema de los recursos simbólicos en las actividades  
turísticas)  
RESUMEN  
El propósito del estudio propuesto es crear un boceto de retrato metafísico de Melitópol en  
el círculo simbólico "miel - leche - agua" en el contexto del problema de atracción de recursos  
simbólicos en el turismo. De manera intensa y siguiendo el fortalecimiento del fenómeno del  
homo viator en el mundo global, las investigaciones en el ámbito turístico y la filosofía del  
turismo prestan cada vez más atención al "recurso interno", incluyendo en este concepto,  
además de lo natural y cultural-histórico, también el recurso simbólico. El trabajo utiliza  
métodos tales como dialécticos y metafísicos, el principio de exhaustividad de la  
investigación, el método lógico general y otros métodos de investigación científica. La leyenda  
turística como dirección aplicada puede convertirse en un eficaz mecanismo de marketing,  
gracias al cual es posible, utilizando una variedad de recursos y herramientas simbólicas,  
crear perspectivas humanitarias y sociales de desarrollo, coordinadas e identificadas a través  
del análisis de estructuras mitológicas y corazas conceptuales para el desarrollo armónico y  
efectivo de estos territorios. En este aspecto, el turismo como una de las ramas de la cultura  
de masas producirá flujos turísticos dirigidos a marcas territoriales previamente elaboradas.  
PALABRAS CLAVE: Retrato metafísico, palimpsesto, mito espacial, simbolismo, lugar  
cultural, filosofía del turismo, turismo, recurso turístico simbólico, leyenda turística.  
Introduction  
Openness to the world, which has already become the norm of Ukrainians, naturally  
awakened in them an artificially restrained desire and ability to appear as a homo viator,  
gradually forming a " mobility culture." But if we consider identification and orientation as  
the "coordinate axis" of human existence in the world, then the reverse process, or the other  
"
side of the coin", seems to be natural - deepening the sense of belonging to man, which is also  
part of human nature, its "culture of rootedness". And these two concepts are certainly  
equivalent and complementary: given the phenomenology of I-Fu Tuan, human life is a  
dialectical oscillation between safe haven and adventure, attachment and freedom (Tuan,  
1
978). Thus, intensified, following the intensification of the phenomenon of homo viator in  
the global world, research in the field of tourism and philosophy of tourism are increasingly  
looking at the "internal resource", including this concept, in addition to natural and cultural-  
historical, and symbolic resource (Shirinkin, 2016). This brings tourism closer to other  
interdisciplinary and applied research, combined with the cultural locality problem  
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(
especially local lore - philosophical and local lore, historical and local lore, geographical and  
local lore, etc.) and brings the researcher to the phenomenology field. Tourism "open-minded  
and morally responsible view and, embodying newly acquired ideas into real projects (first  
of all it is a tourist legend, branding, image), to achieve not only creation of a unique" tourist  
product", but also preservation and delivery to future spirit generations of those places  
which are dear to the heart of the researcher.  
1
. Research base analysis  
The problem of place in general has a long philosophical history, attracting the  
attention to Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Stoics, skeptics (especially places as part of space,  
out of touch with man and culture). The view of place as a natural, geographical phenomenon  
that determines the existence of human communities, and its connection with human  
existence was established in the studies of S. Montesquieu, I. Herder, K. Ritter, A. Humboldt,  
etc., devoted to local civilizations. The topic of the relationship between unique culture and  
place was firstly raised by M. Danilevsky, and then developed by O.Spengler, A.J.Toynbee,  
P.Sorokin, and others, and especially by anthropologists. XX century (K. Levi-Strauss, E. B.  
Taylor, P. Teilhard de Chardin, etc.), who considered the cultural space as a "geographical  
exotic" (J. Deleuze). Considerable attention is paid to the place phenomena, particularly, the  
city in the works of V. Lee, I. Grevs, M. Antsiferov, V.Glazychev, M. Ganopolsky, P. Weil,  
and others. The latest philosophical literature on the phenomenon of localities analyzes them  
mainly from the standpoint of individual existence and social philosophy - the works of M.  
Heidegger, G. Gachev, E. Husserl and others. Then the problem analysis related to the  
peculiarities of an individual territories perception , local territorial images formation, local  
identity, etc. turned to representatives of various sciences: geographers (especially  
representatives of the humanities (J. K. Wright, K.O. Sauer, D. Loventhal, I-Fu Tuan) and  
humanitarian geography (Yu. Vedenin, D. Zamyatin, M. Krylov, O. Lavrenova, I. Mitin, L.  
Smirnyagin, etc.), philologists (S. Lurie, D. Raevsky), culturologists and art critics (G.  
Bashlyar, K. Lynch, T. Tsyvyan) and others. Local characteristics of cultural space attracted  
the attention of F. Brodel, S. Ikonnikova, V. Kuznetsov, H. J. Mackinder, F. Ratzel, N.  
Trubetsky, S. Huntington, K. Haushofer, and others.  
The basic ideas in the field of research of the "text of the city" are linked with the names  
as Y. Lotman and V. Toporov, although the city acts as a cultural text with its own language  
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in the early twentieth century. - in the works of M. Antsiferov, who relies on his predecessors  
in the "soul of the place"research - I. Ten, V. Lee and O. Herzen. Appealing to V. Lee's  
statement: "... places and localities ... act on us as living beings, and we become friends with  
them" (Lee, 1914) - M. Antsiferov approaches the problem in dialogue between man and place.  
conversation with the soul of the city "(Antsiferov 1991, 30), emphasizing:" The research of  
the city as an organic whole gives the experience of understanding the historical and cultural  
organism in its variations "( Antsiferov 1991, 46). Emphasizing the complexity of landscapes  
of cities culture (cultures of different epochs, races, etc.), M. Antsiferov introduced the  
concept of "double landscape" to denote their struggle, thus explaining the binary nature of  
the dominants of such a city. which in the process of historical development is transformed  
from a "single-layer" material landscape into a set of autonomous strata with a variable  
hierarchy, is called, after D. Meinig (Meinig, 1979), palimpsest (Greek παλίμψηστον, from  
πάλιν - meaning ovu and ψηστός - scraped (Latin. Codex rescriptus) - parchment on which  
the original text was erased and a new one was written on top of it) (Mitin, 2005). The  
metaphor of the palimpsest has proved to be extremely successful and is now widely used in  
a wide range of urban studies, including recent research by M. Lepsky in the pages of this  
journal (Lepsky, 2020).  
Each layer of the place (including the city) as a palimpsest is, on the one hand, its  
geographical characteristic, and on the other - a spatial myth (Mitin, 2004). So, just as the  
appearance of every place and every city on earth is unique, so is its spiritual essence, its  
metaphysical "portrait." In addition, it is worth emphasizing that "... cognition is partly self-  
knowledge, because the city opens its face only to those who at least briefly visited its citizen,  
joined his life, thus becoming part of this complex whole" (Antsiferov, 1991 ) and therefore  
we can not ignore the existing attempts at mythosymbolic, phenomenological, socio-  
cultural, local history and tourism, etc. "reading" different layers of the palimpsest of cultural  
history of the city and its region "citizens" (including the authors of this research). Some  
sketches and sketches for the future capacious metaphysical "portrait" of Melitopol  
concerned the problem of finding a virtual "honey" city of its place in the cultural space of the  
Black Sea (Bortnikova, Budko, 2015), the spatial image of Melitopol through the prism of the  
utopian Garden City, 2014 ), cognitive-creative space research of the city in the modern  
perspective (Oleksenko, Afanasieva, 2019), intercultural space of Melitopol (Andryukaitene,  
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Oleksenko, 2014; Afanasieva, Oleksenko, 2014) research of "genotypic" for Melitopol honey  
symbolism and .. 2019) etc. However, the spatial and mythological potential of the city is still  
far from exhausted, encouraging researchers to new explorations and attempts to decode. No  
less important is the search for ways and means to update the "citizens of the city" and  
present to its guests the results of such explorations, the most promising of which we  
consider tourism in case it involves, in addition to natural and historical, cultural and  
symbolic resources.  
2
. Purpose  
Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is to create a metaphysical portrait sketch  
of Melitopol in the symbolic circle "honey - milk - water" in the context of the problem of  
attracting symbolic resources in tourism.  
3. Presentation of the main material  
The main mediators of human behavior, as argued by A. Losev - sign, word, symbol,  
myth (Losev, 1992). V. Humboldt and then M. Mamardashvili prescribed the socialization  
course - to break into the internal symbol form, the internal form of the word, the internal  
form of the myth: if it succeeds, it enriches the personal inner content (Zinchenko, 2001).  
Myth combines the rational, without which modern man is unable to organize and  
comprehend the world around him, and the irrational - and this is even more important  
because it affects the human soul that is beyond human consciousness and rationalism  
(
Kosov, 2007). Investigating the specifics of primitive thinking, L. Levy-Bruhl argued that  
here the laws of logic are largely replaced by the complicity law, to denote which he  
introduced the term "participation" (Levy-Bruhl, 1994). The man of traditional society felt  
mystically one with his family, his mythological patron (totem), his land, his home. Now the  
notion of complicity is returning to our consciousness - both as a basis for philosophizing  
and as a basis for human understanding of himself and his place in the world.  
For people who feel their involvement in Melitopol city, among the symbols that form  
the basis of the image-mythological vision of the hometown, the determining factor is honey  
(
Melitopolis - honey city, from the Greek μέλ -τος τό - honey). Rich and extensive  
mythological tradition, formed around honey and bees, has repeatedly become the object of  
researchers attention. Numerous attempts to "read" the basic meanings of honey symbolism  
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were the basis primarily for ontological reflections and moral and ethical philosophizing,  
which, in turn, served as an ethnographic research, including e symbolism research "honey"  
name Melitopol (Bortnikov et al. 2014). The strongest potential for metaphorization, as  
shown in the research, is shown by the bee (ancient fertility symbol, the mother goddess, to  
which various religious traditions refer), bee swarm and hive (ideas of home, family, family  
values, orderly and fair socially), honey (special gift to the gods, sacrifices to the dead,  
cleansing and protective power, truth and righteousness of God's achievements, symbol of  
poetic genius, eloquence and wisdom), wax (plastic matter symbol, source of light) and  
honeycombs (life prototype). But, as it turned out, the most capacious honey symbolism  
manifests itself in combination with water and milk, which symbolism is surprisingly rich,  
and in case of combination with honey new generates, more meaningful meanings that need  
special attention (Bortnikov et al., 2014: 85) - and this task seems to us a necessary step in  
the desire to join the reproduction in the future palimpsest Melitopol.  
The most obvious, as you can see, is the connection between honey and water. Water  
is the primacy, the original state of all things, the primordial chaos equivalent; androgynous  
beginning of life, male or female fertile strength embodiment; human life juices equivalent;  
metaphor of death, danger, disappearance, sometimes oblivion; the beginning and end of all  
things; immeasurable symbol, impersonal wisdom. First of all, it is the fons et origo (source  
and beginning), the center of all potentials of existence, which is not surprising, because, as  
V. Vernadsky noted, the water cycle in nature is life (Vernadsky, 1977). Contact with water  
always symbolizes rebirth: on the one hand, because dissolution is followed by "new birth";  
on the other - because immersion increases fertility, vitality and creativity. In the ritual of  
initiation, water gives a "new birth", in the magic ritual heals, in funeral rituals - provides  
posthumous rebirth. Embodying all possibilities, water becomes a symbol of Life ("living  
water"), (Eliade 1999, 183-184); "Waters are truly healers; they drive away and cure all  
diseases!" (Eliade 1999, 184). Water Porphyry removes from the purifying symbolic function,  
"
because water has the power to prevent decay, be a cleanser and promote formation, because  
moisture generally plays a role in formation" (On the Nymph Cave: 17). Sources and streams  
are dedicated to water nymphs and soul nymphs, which the ancients called bees - the givers  
of pleasures.  
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