Esta publicación científica en formato digital  
es continuidad de la revista impresa  
ISSN 0041-8811  
E-ISSN 2665-0428  
de la  
del Zulia  
Fundada en 1947  
por el Dr. Jesús Enrique Lossada  
y Arte  
Año 13 N° 38  
Septiembre - Diciembre 2022  
Tercera Época  
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Mykhailo Shmat et al/// Exemption from punishment of military servants unfit for military service 189-201  
Exemption from punishment of military servants unfit for military  
service but sentenced to service restriction, arrest or detention in a  
disciplinary battalion  
Mykhailo Shmat*  
Serhіi Shkolа **  
Serhii Hryshchak ***  
Vsevolod Knyazev****  
The purpose of the research. The purpose of this article is to clarify the peculiarities of the  
release from punishment of military servicemen sentenced to service restrictions but who are  
unfit for military service for health reasons (health-based release). The judicial practice of  
releasing from punishment military servicemen sentenced to service restrictions, arrest or  
detention in a disciplinary battalion but unfit for military service for health reasons is  
insignificant for influencing the criminal execution policy in the sphere of punishment  
execution. Methodology: consideration of materials and methods (based on the analysis of  
the legislation of Ukraine) of release from punishment of servicemen sentenced to restriction  
of service but unfit for military service for health reasons. Conclusions. It has been  
established that there is a lack of proper coordination of the legislation of the criminal cycle  
of Ukraine (provisions of the Criminal Code of Ukraine and the Penitentiary Code of  
KEYWORDS: Military servants, military service, health, release, punishment, service  
Graduate student Department of Public Law, Dnipro University of Technology, Ukraine. ORCID  
ID: Email:  
*** Director of the Educational and Scientific Institute of Humanities and social sciences, Dnipro  
University of Technology, Ukraine. ORCID: Email:  
*** Professor of the Department of Administrative and Constitutional Law Faculty of Maritime  
Law Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Ukraine, ORCID: Email:  
Recibido: 02/06/2022  
Aceptado: 21/07/2022  
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Exención del castigo a los servidores militares no aptos para el  
servicio militar pero sentenciados a restricción del servicio, arresto  
o detención en un batallón disciplinario  
El propósito de la investigación. El propósito de este artículo consiste en aclarar las  
peculiaridades de la liberación de la pena de los militares condenados a restricciones de  
servicio pero que no son aptos para el servicio militar por razones de salud (liberación basada  
en la salud). La práctica judicial de liberar del castigo a los servidores militares condenados a  
restricciones de servicio, arresto o detención en un batallón disciplinario pero que no son  
aptos para el servicio militar por razones de salud, es insignificante para influir en la política  
de ejecución penal en la esfera de la ejecución del castigo. Metodología: Consideración de  
materiales y métodos (basados en el análisis de la legislación de Ucrania) de liberación del  
castigo de los militares sentenciados a la restricción del servicio pero que no son aptos para  
el servicio militar por razones de salud. Conclusiones. Se ha establecido que existe una falta  
de coordinación adecuada de la legislación del ciclo penal de Ucrania (disposiciones del  
Código Penal de Ucrania y el Código Penitenciario de Ucrania).  
PALABRAS CLAVE: Servidores militares, servicio militar, salud, libertad, sanción,  
restricción del servicio.  
The current legislation of Ukraine in the sphere of military activity is characterized by  
existence of a number of problems that need to be solved. Not the least important in this list  
re certain types of punishments applied to military servants of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.  
As a rule, analysis of articles regulating the basic provisions of sentencing remains outside  
interests of scientists, in particular, it is observed in monographs, textbooks, comments to  
the Criminal Code, scientific articles, etc. We believe that closer attention to such issues will  
provide a further way to improve national legislation; it will also strengthen the rule of law  
and help to prevent errors in separate cases of sentencing.  
Violations of the civil rights of military servants will not be allowed (paragraph 59 of  
the National Security Strategy of Ukraine) (Law of Ukraine, 2020); for this reason it is  
planned to create an effective health care system capable of adequately staffing troops  
forces) with service personnel fit for military service according to health conditions”  
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paragraph 4.6 of the Strategic Defense Bulletin of Ukraine) (Law of Ukraine, 2021).) (Law  
of Ukraine, 2021). Such tasks are set by the President of Ukraine for realization of state policy  
in the sphere of national security and military policy of Ukraine.  
The issue of unfitness of a military servant for military service deserves special  
attention, as it is a ground for dismissal from military service and an unfit military servant  
may be subject to release from punishment.  
. Literature review  
Recognition of a military servant to be limited fit for military service does not create  
grounds for his release from punishment according to Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal  
Code of Ukraine which is in good reason pointed out by Y.O. Pysmenskyi (Pysmenskyi,  
2014). However, courts do not always follow this recommendation, and apply a broader  
interpretation of the provisions of Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.  
V.M. Burdin notes as follows: “It is not clear why military servants find themselves in  
a better position than other prisoners whose sentence can be only suspended” (Burdin, 2010).  
Y.O. Pysmenskyi points out that “Legislators do not unjustifiably take into account the  
degree of possible social danger of a crime committed by a military servant” (Pysmenskyi,  
Recommendations of N.I. Polishchuk are aimed at solving this issue; the author points  
out the need to “separate health-based release from punishment of military servants  
performing elements of war crimes (according to the caused level of damage) from all other  
crimes” In other words, it is proposed to provide health-based release from punishment for  
military servants performing military crimes, i.e. offenses aimed at violation of the established  
military service order. Such instructions of N.I. Polishchuk are debatable, as far as  
complications of law enforcement practice are not taken into account, and while appealing  
to such non-alternativeness the author does not give any contradictory judgments of the  
scientific environment. (Polishchuk, 2019).  
The opposite view is held by A.V. Savchenko, who provides the following arguments:  
execution of special basic types of punishments for military servants (service  
restrictions for military servants, arrest on guard duty (n the box) and detention in a  
disciplinary battalion) is associated with further military service, with appropriate  
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restrictions (imprisonment incompatible with further military service - a remark from the candidate for the  
health-based unfitness of a military servant for military service entails further  
dismissal from military service (in reserve or retirement);  
if a legislator provides for the possibility of applying these punishments for crimes of  
average gravity, it is obvious that it provides for the possibility of release from these  
punishments for persons who due to their health status cannot serve them (Sávchenko,  
2. Materials and methods  
The research is based on the works of foreign and Ukrainian researchers, as well as on  
the empirical material of national and international legal acts and juridical (forensic)  
Comparative analysis and the dialectical method of research gave an opportunity to  
comprehensively investigate (research) health-based release from punishment for military  
servants sentenced to service restriction if they are unfit for military service for health  
reasons. The synthetic method was used to determine peculiarities of health-based release  
from punishment of military servants sentenced to service restrictions.  
3. Results and discussion  
According to the provisions of Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine,  
military servants sentenced to service restriction, arrest or detention in a disciplinary  
battalion shall be released from punishment if declared unfit for military service due to their  
health status (Law of Ukraine, 2001). Thus, release from punishment provided for in Part 3  
of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine shall be applied in the presence of the following  
mandatory conditions:  
) the subject of release from punishment is a military servant;  
) conviction to restriction of service, arrest or detention in a disciplinary battalion;  
3) health based unfitness (unsuitability) for military service.  
In such cases, convicted military servants shall be subject to mandatory and final  
unconditional) release from serving their sentences. These mandatory conditions and other  
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circumstances that determine the specifics of health-based release from punishment of  
military servants are subject to further careful analysis and research.  
Application of the provisions of Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine  
is possible in respect of military servants convicted of committing any crimes. After all,  
punishment in the form of restriction of service for military servants (Article 58 of the  
Criminal Code of Ukraine), arrest (Part 2 of Article 60 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine) and  
detention in a disciplinary battalion of military servants (Article 62 of the Criminal Code of  
Ukraine) may be imposed by court according to Article 69 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine,  
in particular, a milder punishment than that provided by the law may be imposed.  
The procedure of health-based release of military servants from serving a sentence  
(military servants declared unfit for military service due to their state of health) is regulated  
by the Penitentiary Code of Ukraine (Law of Ukraine. 2003). Thus, the penitentiary  
legislation of Ukraine determines two types of health-based release of military servants from  
serving sentences:  
those unfit for military service due to their health status with deregistration,  
accompanied by dismissal from military service in accordance with paragraph “b” of Part 1 of  
Article 26 of the Law “On Military Duty and Military Service” “b” of Part 1 of Article 26 of  
the Law “On Military Duty and Military Service” (Law of Ukraine,1992);  
those unfit for military service in peacetime, in particular during a special period  
except martial law), accompanied by discharge from military service in reserve for military  
servants serving conscription (national service) in the army during mobilization, for a special  
period, military service for conscription of persons from among reservists in a special period,  
in accordance with subparagraph “b”, paragraph 1, Part 4 of Article 26 of the Law “On  
Military Duty and Military Service” (Law of Ukraine, 1992).  
The penitentiary legislation of Ukraine establishes a separate procedure for release  
from punishment for each special basic type of punishment of military servants (service  
restriction, arrest or detention in a disciplinary battalion).  
In accordance with Part 5 of Article 47 of the Penitentiary Code of Ukraine, convicts  
serving sentences in the form of service restrictions for military servants and recognized by  
the military medical commission unfit for military service with removal from military  
registration or unfit for military service in peacetime, shall be released by court from  
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punishment on representation of the commander of military unit and the conclusion of the  
military medical commission (Law of Ukraine. 2003).  
According to Part 6., Article 55 of the Penitentiary Code of Ukraine, during the period  
of being under arrest a convicted military servant may not be presented for the next military  
rank, appointed to a higher position, transferred to a new place of service, discharged from  
military service, except in cases of unfitness for military service (Law of Ukraine. 2003).  
According to provisions of Article 85 of the Penitentiary Code of Ukraine, convicts  
serving sentences in the form of detention in a disciplinary battalion and recognized by the  
military medical commission unfit for military service with removal from military  
registration or unfit for military service in peacetime, shall be released by court from  
punishment on representation of the commander of military unit and the conclusion of the  
military medical commission (Law of Ukraine. 2003).  
Thus, when releasing military servants from serving their sentences, if they are  
declared unfit for military service due to their health status, legislators must be guided by the  
relevant provisions of the penitentiary legislation of Ukraine, but such release should be  
based on Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code.  
This type of release from serving a sentence is characterized by certain peculiarities  
concerning the subject of release. A special subject (military servant within the meaning of  
Part 2 of Article 18 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine and certain provisions of the Penitentiary  
Code of Ukraine) is a mandatory component of the exemption from punishment provided for  
in Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.  
According to the Legal Encyclopedia the term military servant includes citizens of  
Ukraine who perform military service in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On Military  
Duty and Military Service” (Shemshuchenko, 1998). However, there are certain doubts  
concerning correctness and completeness of this definition. The current legislation does not  
regulate a single definition of a military servant, but it provides for certain aspects of his/her  
legal status. When conducting a comprehensive analysis of current legislation of Ukraine, I  
come to the conclusion that it is necessary to scientifically clarify this term and define the  
concept as follows:  
Military servants are citizens of Ukraine, foreigners and stateless persons who serve  
in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, other military formations formed in accordance with the  
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laws of Ukraine and citizens of Ukraine who serve in law enforcement agencies of special  
purpose (hereinafter - law enforcement agencies: Security Service of Ukraine, the State  
Border Guard Service of Ukraine - remark from the candidate for the degree), who serve in  
the territory of Ukraine, and military servants of the above military formations and law  
enforcement agencies - citizens of Ukraine who perform military service outside Ukraine  
Part 3 of Article 2 Law “On Military Duty and Military Service” (Law of Ukraine,1992).  
Military servant as a special subject of release from punishment is characterized by  
additional features:  
1) The subject belongs to an appropriate category of persons (conscripts, reservists  
or other persons specified by law may not be included);  
2) Performing military service (conscription or contract);  
Types of military service include:  
forced (compulsory) military service;  
conscription military service during mobilization, for a special period;  
military service under the contract of private corps (junior enlisted)  
military service under the contract of sergeant (noncommissioned officer corps) and  
sergeant major corps;  
military service (training) of cadets of higher military educational institutions, as well  
as higher educational institutions comprising military institutes, faculties of military  
training, departments of military training, branches of military training (hereinafter - higher  
military educational institutions and military educational units of higher educational  
military service under the contract of officer corps;  
conscription military service of officer corps;  
conscription military service for reservists in a special period. (Law of Ukraine,1992).  
It should also be noted that "with entry into force of the court’s conviction, military  
criminal relations are transformed into military penitentiary (penal) relations which  
determine further specifics of the subject” and the specifics of the execution of punishment”  
and the specificity of punishment execution (Nikolaienko, 2019).  
As can be seen from the provisions of Articles 58, 60 Part 2, Article 62 of the Criminal  
Code of Ukraine, the special main types of punishment of military servants should include:  
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service restrictions for military servants;  
arrest with detention in a guardhouse;  
detention of military servants in a disciplinary battalion (Law of Ukraine. 2001).  
This position is the most acceptable among the scientific community and practitioners of  
criminal law; in particular, this opinion is shared by M.S. Turkot, Reserve Justice Colonel, a  
veteran of military service and an honorary employee of the Prosecutor’s Office of Ukraine  
Turkot, 2015).  
The mentioned criminal punishments for military servants are special due to a  
combination of the following circumstances:  
special order of serving sentences;  
special legal status of persons serving their sentences;  
the opportunity to stay in the military service with the continued performance of  
military service duties as usual or with certain restrictions.  
Service restrictions for servicemen are the main term-based punishment which can be  
imposed for committing a crime only on a military servant (except for conscripts) for a period  
from six months to two years.  
The punishment is that while continuing to serve in the military the convict is subject  
to certain restrictions related to advance in rank, length of service and financial security. The  
sentence is executed at the place of military service. This type of punishment is  
commensurate with correctional labor.  
Arrest is the main term-based punishment for military servants; it is applied within  
the range from one to six months.  
Punishment is that while continuing to serve in the military and being subjected to  
restrictions due to the type of punishment and the order of its serving the convict is kept in  
isolation. The sentence is not served in detention centers, but in a guardhouse.  
Detention in a disciplinary battalion is the main term type of term-based punishment  
applied exclusively to conscripts. The sentence is imposed for a period from six months to  
two years and consists in serving the sentence in a special military unit.  
A specific feature typical for punishments associated with isolation of military  
servants (arrest and detention in a disciplinary battalion - remark from the candidate for the degree) is also  
the presence of a special body that ensures their execution.  
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According to the Law of Ukraine “On the Military Law Enforcement Service in the  
Armed Forces of Ukraine”, the Military Law Enforcement Service (hereinafter - the Law  
Enforcement Service) executes decisions on keeping military servants on guard duty  
guardhouse) and enforces criminal punishment for sentenced military servants [9, 105]. The  
reform of Ukraine's military sector includes transformation the Military Law Enforcement  
Service into the Military Police. This topic is covered in more detail in the scientific works  
by V.M. Kolomiiets (Kolomiiets, 2020).  
The institution of health-based release from punishment can be applied both to  
convicted military servants (Part 3 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine) and to  
civilian convicts (Part 1, 2 of Article 84 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine). When conducting  
comparative studies modern comparativists of criminal law do not come to a consensus on  
the expediency of separating a special subject of health-based release from punishment  
(military servant).  
I perceive A.V. Savchenko’s position as the most reasonable one that explains the  
determinant legislative decision, namely the need to carry out the above punishments  
exclusively in military service conditions (Sаvchenko, 2013).  
Determining the suitability of military servants for military service in peacetime and  
in military conditions is the main activity of Military Medical Commissions of Ukraine.  
Military Medical Commissions of Ukraine (hereinafter - MMC), and Medical Flight  
they operate at all departmental military medical establishments (institutions), in particular  
military formations , formed in accordance with the laws of Ukraine, and law enforcement  
bodies of special purpose.  
The system of Military Medical Commissions of Ukraine, including Medical Flight  
Commissions - full-time ones and part-time ones (permanent ones and temporary ones),  
consists of:  
Local MMCs (garrison MMCs);  
Regional MMCs;  
The Central MMC is a military management body, which manages regional WLCs  
and is the leading body for military medical examinations.  
Military Medical Commissions of Ukraine have departmental affiliation to:  
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The Armed Forces of Ukraine;  
The State Border Guard Service of Ukraine;  
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine;  
The Security Service of Ukraine;  
The System of Emergency Bodies;  
MMCs make their decisions in form of resolutions, which are supplemented with a  
certificate of the disease, a certificate from the military medical commission and minutes of  
the meeting of the military medical commission.  
The low representational level of research on WLC activities due to the regime of  
limited access to information does not correspond to the social significance of this institution  
of military medicine. Structural features of MMCs and the procedure of performing their  
tasks have great potential for further scientific research (Leheza ect., 2021).  
Affiliation of Military Medical Commissions of Ukraine to various state agencies and  
their departmental legal regulation presupposes existence of many separate Lists of diseases  
Schedules of diseases, health statuses and physical defects, which determine the degree of  
suitability (fitness) for military service).  
Judicial practice of health-based release from punishment of military servants  
sentenced to service restrictions, arrest or detention in a disciplinary battalion but found to  
be unfit for military service is insignificant to influence criminal enforcement policy in the  
sphere of punishment execution. In recent years, only a few decisions (court rulings) on the  
issue have been presented in the criminal proceedings of Ukraine.  </