Opción, Año 33, No. 85 (2018): 475-499
ISSN 1012-1587 / ISSNe: 2477-9385
Determination of the pedagogical conditions for forming the readiness of future primary school teachers
Saule Zhakipbekova Zhetysu State University, Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan firstname.lastname@example.org
An article dealt with the questions of training of pedagogical personnel for work in inclusive educational institutions. The actual direction in meeting the challenges for forming the readiness of pedagogical potential is determination of pedagogical conditions at the higher school, development of learning technologies, aimed at bridging the gap between theoretical knowledge and professional skills and abilities of the future primary school teacher. Also, there is determined a role of pedagogical conditions at realization of model for forming the readiness that will allow to carry out the training process effectively of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs.
Keywords: training, the pedagogical conditions, readiness, the primary school teacher, joint training.
Recibido: 10-01-2018 Aceptado: 09-03-2018
476 Zhakipbekova .et al.
Opción, Año 34, No. 85 (2018): 475-499
La determinación de las condiciones pedagógicas para la preparación de futuros maestros de escuela primaria
El artículo trató las cuestiones de la formación de personal pedagógico para el trabajo en instituciones educativas inclusivas. La dirección real para enfrentar los desafíos para formar la preparación del potencial pedagógico es la determinación de las condiciones pedagógicas en la escuela superior, desarrollo de tecnologías de aprendizaje destinadas a cerrar la brecha entre el conocimiento teórico y las habilidades y destrezas profesionales del futuro maestro de escuela primaria. Además, se determinó el papel de las condiciones pedagógicas en la realización del modelo para formar la preparación que permitirá llevar a cabo el proceso de capacitación de los futuros maestros de escuela primaria para la capacitación conjunta de niños con necesidades educativas especiales.
Palabras clave: entrenamiento, condiciones pedagógicas, preparación, maestro de escuela primaria, entrenamiento conjunto.
Development of modern domestic educational system is followed by the difficult processes of changes in people consciousness and requires reconsideration fundamental and universal knowledge. For the last twenty years the domestic school undergone essential changes in conditions of influence of the market relations, change of valuable orientations, so, it is possible to say that the organization of educational process on the new principles, providing democratic transformations and integration of national system into the world educational space, plays a significant role.
The reforms, happening in the Kazakhstan society, affect practically all elements of an education system — the content, methods and forms of training, ways of result assessments, management and financing, creation of material and technical resources. The variety and unconventional character of solvable pedagogical tasks determine the training problems of the primary school teacher for their decision. Now, the progressive tendencies are joined in development of the higher pedagogical education rapidly. For example, appearance of the variative technologies, focused on subjectivity, creative individuality of the students, activization of their internal resources, etc. One of the major modern directions in meeting the challenges for forming the readiness of pedagogical potential is determination of pedagogical conditions at the higher school, development of learning technologies, aimed at bridging the gap between theoretical knowledge and professional skills and abilities of the future primary school teacher.
The complex of pedagogical conditions is provided with holistic perception of the united parts, and it is determined by the unity of tasks, the principles, regularities, forms, methods and means of achieving the goal for forming the readiness at future teachers (BIKTAGIROVA and KHITRYUK, 2016). For the last decades in Kazakhstan it is more and more realized that mental and physical disability of the child don’t deny human essence, ability to empathy, acquirement of a social experience. In this regard joint form of training children with the normal and developmental disorders should favorably affect not only development of the personality of disabled children, but also their normally developing peers. Formation of a position of acceptance, tolerance, empathy to
―special‖ pupils, the aspirations to help them, which are formed at
interaction of the child with features in development and their normally developing schoolmates in united educational space, reduces risk of emergence of aggression at the last mentioned. However, many primary school teacher are insufficiently ready to work with disabled children. Moreover, the problem of teacher training of primary education for work with disabled children in the training system is developed insufficiently in higher education institutions as well. Organizing training of primary school teachers for work with disabled children, we have to know accurately not only essence, but also structural components of required readiness. Only on that condition it is possible to carry out purposefully and qualitatively this process (ZULFIJA et al., 2013). It should be noted that the lack of system approach to a problem of training of future primary school teachers for work in inclusive educational institutions in the conditions of the universities is the result in deficiency of necessary competences, and the future professionals have no the main idea about the integrity of conception of the work content with such children. This article is determined the main pedagogical conditions for forming the readiness of future primary school teachers for collaboration work according to the special educational needs of children in the conditions of modern educational space.
Human resources are one of the main indicators of success, the continuity and realization of the goals and aspirations of organizations. In each organization, the decision and management of each manager directly affects the job performance of employees. The main idea of the research is
that formation of readiness of the primary school teacher for work with disabled children is implemented during creation of the educational environment of higher education institution, when the students, on the basis of the gained knowledge and abilities, are capable to carry out functions of socialization of pupils, so it is actualized their own activity and creative potential. It means that the future teachers in higher education institution have to investigate deeply the system of competence, providing them successful cooperation with children and family on permission of the arising problems of inclusive education. From these positions, one of the important aspects in realization of the purpose of our scientific work is theoretical justification of pedagogical providing for forming the readiness of future primary school teacher to work with disabled children, and also revelation of the complex of pedagogical conditions for training of future primary school teachers. So, the given question is acquires a special importance and relevance. Studying of the theoretical researches and practice of training for the future primary school teacher on work with disabled children demonstrates that not all aspects of this problem got the practical permission, as it remains not quite certain, and, the potential of the condition complex, helping for forming the readiness of future primary school teacher for inclusive activity, is not fully realized. Besides, there are insufficiently developed and proved the contents and the system of purposeful use in vocational training, the individual approach, active forms and methods, providing system training of the specialists, capable to work in the conditions of the inclusive school. At the same time, development of these aspects could help with training of future primar y school teachers for professional pedagogical activity, expand their knowledge about psychological regularities and features of age and personal development of disabled children; knowledge of contents and the
principles of the organization of educational process of joint training of disabled children; ability to realize various ways of the correctional developing activity. Studying of views of various researchers concerning definition of the concept ―pedagogical conditions‖ allows to select several statements which are important for our comprehension:
- pedagogical conditions act as the constituent element of a holistic pedagogical process;
- pedagogical conditions reflect consolidation of the possibilities on the educational and material and spatial environment;
- the structure of pedagogical conditions has as internal (providing personal development of subjects of educational process), and external (promoting to formation of the general educational system) elements;
- realization of correctly chosen pedagogical conditions provides development and efficiency of integrated functioning of pedagogical system.
Expert poll of the primary school teachers, working at comprehensive secondary school, is considered by us as the leading method for identification of the conditions, necessary for manifestation of creativity in professional activity. The results of expert poll show that most of teachers aren’t ready to joint work with children having the normal development and disabled children; and university training of future primary school teachers isn’t sufficient for work with disabled children. Teachers find it difficult to work in classes where disabled
children will study together with peers, but they would agree to teach on condition of sufficient vocational training. According to experts, future primary school teachers should have the special training for the graduation period of the university in order to take part in training process of disabled children. The process of vocational training of the students in specialty
―Pedagogy and methods of primary education‖ have to conclude the disciplines, concerning process of joint training for children with the normal development and disabled children, to create conditions for obtaining necessary knowledge, skills and abilities not only pedagogical, but also general defectology character.
The current research is applied from the point of view of applied research and considering the content of the subject, the research method is descriptive. Regarding the main objective of this study, the effect of organizational change strategies on the job performance of teachers in Kazakhstan is considered. According to the relationship between variables, this descriptive-correlational study is one. According to the method of data collection, survey approach is dominant in research. Acquiring complex science and techniques is possible through complex educational methods. For this reason, the task and responsibility of the professor today are heavier and more complex than before. In the traditional way, society and individuals cannot be turned into a complex and advanced transformation. In a complex world, nobody needs education. Today, activity in school and in education has become a huge part of human life and can no longer be viewed with a disciple and upbringing.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
At the present stage the changes of school education development and pedagogy is the transformation to search of mechanisms for training improvement of pedagogical personnel, bringing their capabilities closer to the ever-growing demands of the individual and society. In this regard the present education system is become integrated, multilevel and multistage more and more, opening new possibilities of personal, social and professional development. So, great demands are made not only on vocational training, but also on the personality of the university graduate, which is reflected in tendencies of reforming of the education system. On the one hand, the high professional competence is considered as a necessary condition and as a component of the personality development, and with another – the structure of basic competences the graduate of the higher education has include such personal qualities as: responsibility, initiative, independence, aspiration to self-development and self- improvement, adequate valuable orientations.
In many researches the essence for forming the readiness of the primary school teacher is considered as the fulfilled system of qualification characteristics in which there are defined contents and the system of theoretical knowledge, the list of the pedagogical skills, necessary for implementation of teaching and educational functions of the primary school teacher (LIN et al., 2003, MOVKEBAYEVA et al., 2016); as process of vocational training in general (NAMAZBAYEVA, 1982, KODZHASPIROVA and KODZHASPIROV, 2005). Considerable interest represents researches (ZINCHENKO, 1985, ANDREEVA, 2003), which are connected: with the analysis of means and methods for formation of new pedagogical thinking, creation of organizational and
pedagogical conditions, which are the most important condition of professionalism improvement at students. Among the various occupations of a community, teacher education is one of their most important, and teachers have been found to be invaluable in fostering the future generations of each community due to the direct effects of education and education on the children of their families (PLETENEVA and EMELYANOVA, 2014, FOKINA et al., 2016). Teacher's career, along with its importance, is recognized as one of the most stressful jobs in the world. Teachers are the most important and influential factors in the school and are responsible for their job performance and students' academic achievement and targeted actions in the organization. Therefore, teachers have to be stimulated and motivated to earn high performance. Also, the progress of a country depends on its educational system in the first phase. Teachers play a critical role in the successful educational system and it is believed that good performance of students depends on the way teachers teach their teachers (FOMINYKH et al., 2016). Teachers' job performance is one of the most important factors in facilitating student learning. The teacher's job performance is also defined as tasks assigned by the teacher at a specific time and at a school to achieve organizational goals. Questions for forming the professional readiness of the teacher in the field of inclusive education were considered both domestic and foreign authors.
For determination of the pedagogical conditions in the research we were guided by basic requirements of the State general education standard
of ―Primary education‖ specialty, key provisions of the offered model for forming the readiness, requirements to the final result of the training for primary school teacher who is ready to joint training of children with special educational needs. We consider pedagogical conditions as the main characteristics of educational process of higher education institution. In our opinion, it is logical to mark out the complex of pedagogical conditions, proceeding from the next: in relation to what they are formulated, provided, observed. We will consider the highlighted conditions from the point of view of their provision in the process of forming the readiness of future primary school teachers to joint training of children with special educational needs.
Motivation to activities for the organization of joint training and education of children with special educational needs. We consider this condition as a key at forming the readiness of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs. Its implementation is due to the organization of the training process, directed to stimulation of aspirations for future primary school teachers to self- development. This condition is provided through formation of a personal and semantic component of readiness the future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs. In the course of training it is necessary to form at future primary school teachers steady positive orientation on development of inclusive activity, deep personal interest in implementation of pedagogical activity in the conditions of involvement of disabled children in environment of normally developing peers. It happens optimally by means of drawing attention of future primary school teachers to pressing problems of children with special educational needs, through the logical presentation of the material, with a
consistent introduction of the future primary school teacher to an understanding of the importance, necessity and, to some degree, the inevitability of introduction the forms of joint training of children, by means of the analysis of real examples of successful inclusion of disabled children in general education process.
The most effective methods in the solution of this question is the analysis of positive experience of joint training and education of children with the special educational needs (opinions of skilled primary school teachers, opinions of parents of the disabled children, attending primary school, videos of lessons with children, etc.). The motivation of future primary school teachers to joint training of the children with special educational needs can be successfully formed by constantly increasing the level of requirements for mastering the educational material with simultaneous unobtrusive support and assistance in mastering the new material. The positive internal motivation is reached in case the student realizes priority of the performed tasks for the future professional activity, and he take a sense in the technologies mastered by him. The external motivation to development for joint training and children education with special educational needs is successfully reached through an explanation of future primary school teacher of that fact that possession of new technologies will significantly expand possibilities of employment of future primary school teachers, to increase their competitiveness in labor market. Formation of socially significant motivation of future primary school teachers to joint training of children with special educational needs finds the reflection in development of the motives, connected with awareness of public value of the joint training, with a sense of duty, social responsibility in general, and in particular, the children with special
educational needs. An important role in formation of motivation will play involvement of future primary school teachers to participation in inter- university student’s conferences and the Olympic games, which would allowed them to show the own knowledge before wide audience.
Formation of the reflection of future teachers of primary classes in the training process. The reflection performs as an important condition of training of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs. The most effective ways, forming a reflection of future primary school teachers are the ethical conversations, group discussions, informing about values, shown as aiming for the idea, with an interactive form, helping to make values both group and individually significant, and also the questionnaires, actualizing the reflection for the primary school teacher. Active use of beliefs, modeling of a situation of the moral choice give an opportunity to form full-fledged axiological space, in which the values of joint training for children with special educational needs are become conscious.
Adaptation of training content on development of activities for joint training of children with special educational needs to basic readiness of students. Undoubtedly, the formation of readiness for joint training of children with special educational needs has to be imposed on a certain level psychology and pedagogical, in particular the general defectology knowledge and abilities. This condition requires from future primary school teachers of existence of basic knowledge and also special knowledge, necessary for implementation of joint training and education of children with special educational needs.
Basic knowledge are knowledge about content of activity of future primary school teacher, essence, contents and the principles of the organization for joint training and education of children with special educational needs, ideas about structure of disorders in psychophysical development, and in general, about the system of special education. As a basic component we understand the subject, psychological and methodical knowledge, skills and abilities, including general defectology, and as a special component - the following psychology and pedagogical knowledge and abilities: knowledge of essence of inclusive education, its differences from traditional forms of education; knowledge of psychological regularities and features of age and personal development of the disabled children; knowledge of methods of psychological and didactic planning of educational process of joint training of children with normal development and disabled children; ability to realize various ways of the correctional developing activity, pedagogical interaction between all subjects of the educational environment (with pupils separately and in group, with parents, colleagues teachers, experts of psychology and pedagogical support, the management).
Mastering of basic knowledge conducts within studying of disciplines of the main and additional training, by means of passing the primary school teachers through the pedagogical practices. It is more logical to begin education according to the specified direction at the second year of training of future primary school teachers, as by this period students already seize the main knowledge in disciplines of general vocational training. They know the basic concepts, reflecting essence of pedagogical activity, the organization of pedagogical process in primary school and the basic skills of analysis on pedagogical processes are
formed. Within studying of psychological disciplines students study the features of mentality development of children with special educational needs, the main psychological phenomena and new formations of each age. On the one hand, such a set of knowledge is necessary, on the other hand - is sufficient for entry of future primary school teachers into process of joint training for children with special educational needs. This condition provides the sequence and training concentration.
Practical orientation of the content of training for future primary school teachers on joint training of the children with special educational needs. Within the framework of the constructed model for forming the readiness of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs there was done the essential emphasis towards a procedural and effective component of readiness by means of the displacement of training direction towards mastering of ways for the solution of practical problems of future activities for joint training of children with special educational needs. In the course for forming the readiness of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs it is necessary to focus them consistently and fully on implementation of certain professional actions which were defined in advance in the form of the requirement to the level of development of the training content. Modern educational standards make the demand of accurate orientation of education for future profession, obligatory inclusion in training process of laboratory practical works and practical training. Within development of model and methods for forming the readiness of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs we considered necessary to avoid excessive theoretical load of training process. Inclusion in training process of a
practical work, the analysis of production situations, imitating modeling, the solution of the situational tasks, allowing to fulfill systematically professional abilities. Resource ensuring of training process for forming the readiness of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs are: adaptation of training content on development of activities for joint training of children with special educational needs to basic readiness of the students; practical orientation of training content of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs with the normal development and disabled children; resource ensuring of process for forming the readiness of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs.
Resource ensuring of process for forming the readiness of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs is provided according to requirements of standards. Everyone receives the course program, containing the educational and methodical materials, including the description of the purposes and tasks for mastering of a course, contents of planning for mastering of the course, detailed methodical recommendations, control and estimated materials with evaluation criteria, information sources (literature, electronic sources, references to the websites). Besides, future primary school teacher have to be provided with an electronic package of training materials (selection of materials in the formats: word, PDF, etc.), including the description and methods of mastering of each module where it is necessary to address to them in the training process for seminar studies. Such information and resource providing of process for forming the readiness for joint training of children with special educational needs contributes to the development
of independence at material mastering, stimulates creative search, gives the possibility to choice the speed of course mastering, creative influence on the training process, forms ability of planning, forecasting.
Modern education requires accurate formulation of the end for training results of the professional in compliance requirements to a profession that demands existence of reasonable criteria and indicators for mobile pedagogical assessment of level and success for forming the readiness of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs.
Selection of estimated materials for monitoring of dynamics of formation process has to be made on the basis of set of criteria and indicators of readiness of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs. Formulation of criteria and indicative readiness of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs allows to form readiness consistently, beforehand selecting the material and methods of training, providing compliance to each of the marked-out criteria. If there is a system of precise criteria and indicators of readiness the solution of tasks for formation at the primary school teacher of readiness for joint training of children with special educational needs is implemented consistently through achievement by them in the training course of compliance to the marked-out criteria and indicators. Compliance of evaluation criteria (motivational and orientation, information, operational) to readiness components (personal and semantic, cognitive, technological) allows to achieve the program accuracy and integrity of training, provides, on the one hand, the possibility consistently and linearly to form and estimate
compliance to each criterion, with another, to control the process of forming the readiness in a complex.
Use of estimated control of knowledge and abilities received during training, allows to determine compliance of personal achievements of future primary school teachers to requirements of the profession within the current and test control. It is expedient to use rating control at developing the control and estimated procedures. There are reached at realization: maintenance of constant feedback with future primary school teachers in mastering of the training material and acceptance of optimal solutions in training quality management and also training individualization, stimulation of independent work of future primary school teachers, taking into account individual abilities and interests.
Thus, providing all set of above-mentioned pedagogical conditions at realization of model for forming the readiness will allow to carry out effectively the training process of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs.
Some authors connect the questions of implementation of pedagogical conditions in modern researches directly with: pedagogical activity, individual and collective creative activity of the teacher (BATSIOU et al., 2008); the teacher aspiration to the solution of the pedagogical tasks necessary for achievement of effective results on the basis of knowledge, skills (MOVKEBAYEVA et al., 2016); development
of pedagogical professional competence and a reflection of activity; professional development on condition of creation the modular program for improvement of professional competence of the; nature of professional activities and activity of the personality, his need for self-development and self-actualization. Other authors determine practical implementation by the parameters of success of professional activity: ―I am the concept‖ of the teacher; intellectual and strong-willed features of the teacher, his professional knowledge and methodological bases, possession of pedagogical technology.
ALLAN (2003) says in her researches that ―the effective integrated training is possible only on condition of training and retraining of the personnel both teachers of general education, and special schools. The purpose of such training is mastering by the teachers of mass schools of defectology knowledge and special pedagogical technologies which will provide possibility of the qualified training for disabled children‖. From the point of view of foreign researchers (Ingrid Lewis and Sunit Bagree) it is necessary for modern school to have a teacher for each child who will be able to offer him the quality and inclusive education. Children, who are felt that their teachers don’t understand them and don’t have the general idea, can often be drop out from the training process. It is necessary to create the following conditions for this purpose:
• to conduct more in-depth development of the understanding of inclusive education and a better understanding of how to introduce inclusive educations at all stages of training in the professional development.
• to give a support in the field of teaching for acquaintance with the existing system of training and determination of the possibilities for inclusion of children with special educational needs in the modern training system.
• to improve the training system of teachers, who will create effective balance of theoretical and practical training.
Implementation of these conditions will exert impact on growth of the inclusive, highly skilled and well paid pedagogical labor. Hardman, M. says that the universities are obliged to reflect the current researches on effective teacher training and to react to the changing needs of the XXI century (HARDMAN, 2009). Loreman T., Deppeler J. and Harvey D. in the practical guidance on inclusive education state the principles which are the cornerstone of educational variety and inclusive practice also they discuss a range of different needs, where teachers in inclusive audience can face with them. They explain the practical questions, connected with assessment, planning and introduction of the inclusive training program. The social emphasis is placed on providing that all pupils got worthy educational experience, at the same time studying together, and there is more accurately emphasized the process approach to inclusion of school, applicable to all pupils, but not emphasis on categories, which are often appropriated to those, who has different needs for training (LOREMAN et al., 2005). Merrifild, M.M. opens in his researches: why and how the teachers overcomed a gap between multicultural and global education for teacher training for a variety and justice (MERRYFIELD, 2000). Professional working theory of Guðjónsdóttir H. and Dalmau M.C. takes a new view on education, and can quite claim that there is no the best way to make it, than through vocational education of teachers by approach to
their own pedagogical development by means of use of self-training (DALMAU and GUDJÓNSDÓTTIR, 2002). Generalizing in a whole the above-stated, there can be claimed that the specified pedagogical conditions of forming the readiness for professional activity of future teacher in educational process of higher education institution represent systemic unity. Even more often pedagogical education requires the relationships with other partners and Darling-Hammond points out that
―the pedagogical education institution must go further and further from the university and to interact more and more closely with schools in mutual transformation‖.
We, in the course of development and justification of structural and substantial model for forming the readiness, studied the training process of future primary school teachers for work with disabled children and determined a complex of the pedagogical conditions, influencing efficiency of development of professional competences for future teachers. This article is opened the analysis of researches of professional teacher readiness for work in the conditions of inclusive school. The analysis of basic requirements of the State general education standard of
―Primary education‖ specialty and key provisions of the offered model for forming the readiness are the basis for the author to determine the complex of pedagogical conditions for forming the readiness of future primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs in the conditions of modern educational space. According to our research the pedagogical conditions are understood as
set of factors, the components of educational process, providing more successful development of professional competences for future primary school teachers to joint work with children with the normal development and disabled children.
As we consider pedagogical conditions as characteristics (internal and external) of the integrated pedagogical system, we can claim that the separate, accidentally chosen pedagogical conditions can’t influence considerably on the realization of complete model of development of professional competences for future primary school teachers. The flexible, dynamically improved complex is necessary for this purpose: personal development of the student, resource ensuring for training process in higher education institution, existence of reasonable criteria and indicators for mobile pedagogical assessment of level and success for forming the readiness of primary school teachers; knowledge of the specifics on joint training for children with the normal development and disabled children, the methodical content of training for disabled children, their psychophysical features and the nature of disorders. Thus, the problem solution for formation of professional readiness of future primary school teachers in higher education institution is feasible taking into account two aspects: organizational – the organization of educational process within model; personal – interrelation of the subjects of educational process. Considering the aforesaid, we specify that pedagogical conditions for forming the readiness of future primary school teachers in the course of vocational education are consolidation of external circumstances of educational process and internal features of the student personality on which the formation and development of highly professional characteristics of the personality are depended. According to the results of
studying of the process for forming the readiness of the teacher to activity, the analysis of domestic and foreign researches, considering the content of the developed model, we concluded the next: formation of the professional readiness for future primary school teachers for joint work with children with the normal development and disabled children must be made at creation of the following pedagogical conditions:
– the development of program-content support for higher education of future teachers on the basis of qualitatively improved training;
- formation of the socially significant motivation of future primary school teachers to joint training of children with special educational needs;
- formation of the reflection of future primary school teachers in the training process;
- adaptation of the training content for development of activities for joint training of children with special educational needs to basic readiness of the students;
- practical orientation of the training content of future primary school teachers;
- resource ensuring of the process for formation of readiness for primary school teachers, according to the standard requirements;
- existence of reasonable criteria and indicators for mobile pedagogical assessment of the level and success for forming the
readiness of primary school teachers for joint training of children with special educational needs;
- use of the estimated control of knowledge and abilities, received during training in higher education institution.
For this purpose we developed and introduced an elective course in the high school process of approbation: ―The work organization of the primary school teacher with disabled children‖, which will promote to the formation at young specialists of such qualities as: the activity, competence, professionalism, responsibility, self-improvement, ability to make non-standard decisions, and also will provide the maximum approaching the training to real professional activity.
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HARDMAN, Michael L, 2