Opción, Año 33, No. 85 (2018): 44-62
ISSN 1012-1587 / ISSNe: 2477-9385
Managerial competence of future specialists of the education system (Preschool education and upbringing) and medicine in the comparative aspect
Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abai
13 Dostyk ave., Almaty, Kazakhstan email@example.com
West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical University
68, Maresyev str., Aktobe, Kazakhstan firstname.lastname@example.org
Ye.A. Buketov Karaganda State University,
Karaganda, Kazakhstan email@example.com
K. Zhubanov Aktobe Regional State University
34, A. Moldagulova Prospect., Aktobe, Kazakhstan firstname.lastname@example.org
West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical University
68, Maresyev str., Aktobe, Kazakhstan email@example.com
It is proposed the solution of one of the urgent tasks in pedagogical science and practice – development of managerial competence at future specialists in the sphere of medicine and education (preschool education and upbringing). The purpose of our research consists in comparison of the obtained data on diagnostics of managerial competence at future specialists in the aspect of two empirical researches, conducted in the different cities of Kazakhstan - Almaty and Aktobe. On the basis of the obtained data it is planned to develop psychology and pedagogical conditions for formation and development of managerial competence at future specialists of the preschool organizations and medical practice in the conditions of vocational training in higher education institution.Keywords: managerial skills, managerial competence, future specialist of medical practice, information and communication technologies, education management.
Keywords: managerial skills, managerial competence, future specialist of medical practice, information and communication technologies, education management.
Recibido: 10-01-2018 Aceptado: 09-03-2018
Competencia gerencial de futuros especialistas del sistema educativo (Educación preescolar y educación del hogar) y medicina en el aspecto comparativo
Se propone la solución de una de las tareas urgentes en la ciencia y la práctica pedagógica: el desarrollo de la competencia administrativa en futuros especialistas en el campo de la medicina y la educación (educación preescolar y educación del hogar). El objetivo de nuestra investigación consiste en la comparación de los datos recibidos sobre el diagnóstico de la capacidad de gestión a los especialistas futuros en el aspecto de dos investigaciones empíricas, conducidas en las ciudades diferentes de Kazajistán - Almaty y Aktobe. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos, se planea desarrollar las condiciones psicológicas y pedagógicas para la formación y el desarrollo de la competencia gerencial de los futuros especialistas de las organizaciones preescolares y la práctica médica en las condiciones de la formación profesional en la institución de educación superior.
Palabras clave: habilidades de gestión, competencia administrativa, futuro especialista en práctica médica, tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, gestión de la educación.
Education is a sphere for formation of intellectual potential of the nation of any country. At the beginning of XXI century reforming of educational system became a pressing problem of the world community. According to UNESCO data, one of the reasons of this phenomenon was the revaluation of values of the world civilization, in the course of which society has approached awareness of the need of education of the cultural person with planetary thinking, capable to participate actively in social progress in harmony with the nature world, society and own inner world.
Quality management in education is one of the problems which today‟s society demands from the main participants of process of accreditation, constant improvement and the best practices of educational institutions. It is known that the quality of education depends on participants vertically and horizontally – heads, lecturers and teachers, other specialists (psychologists, educators, social workers, methodologists, tutors), in general the managers of education. Each specialist in education in the varying degree is the manager, whose profile includes the following managerial competences: leadership, management skills and management of the changes. Managerial competencies, which managers of educational institutions should possess, are consisted in the following: 1) the management, necessary for implementation of the processes on management of the academic and administrative schools; 2) leadership as performance of obligations, initiatives, creativity, vision of the future and solid values in personal and professional activity; 3) control of the changes by means of innovative measures and projects for achievement of the institutional purposes (Kolb and Kolb, 2005).
The competence is “the integrated knowledge, received from knowledge, skills and values, which the person constantly develops in his life for use in the personal and professional activity in work and social conditions, in which he develops” (Cano González, 2009). The social and economic transformations, happening in all spheres of the Republic of Kazakhstan, demanded new approaches, as to the system of preschool education, and the highest. The conceptual foundation of transformation of system of preschool education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is laid in the main state documents, such as Strategic program “Kazakhstan-2030” (Nazarbayev, 1997), State program of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 (Bekishev, 2013), the Law of RK
“On Education”, Model curriculum of preschool education and training, State standards for preschool education and instruction RK-1.001-2016 and others. The reference point in all transformational changes to the messages of the President of Kazakhstan is obvious. The President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev‟s Address to the nation of Kazakhstan of January 31, 2017 “Third modernization of Kazakhstan: global competitiveness” has as the fourth priority – “improvement of quality of the human capital which consists, first of all, in charge of the role of the education system. Our task – to make education the central link of new model of economic growth” (Isaacs, 2010). The relevance of improvement of the personnel resource at preschool educational institutions is emphasized in the last Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan “New possibilities of development in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution” of January 10, 2018. As the seventh task “The human capital – a modernization basis” it is designated achievement of new quality of education by creation of own advanced education system, covering citizens of all age. “Development of ability to continuous adaptation to changes and assimilation of new knowledge has to become a key priority of educational programs. In preschool education by September 1, 2019 it is necessary to introduce the integrated standards of programs for early development of children, developing social skills and skills of self- training”. And, as we know, social skills and skills of self-training at children are formed, first of all, by specialists of the preschool organizations, as the preschool education – is the base of all educational system, as exactly here it is laid the principles of the personality, determining the nature of future development of the child, increase in value of preschool education and training is among universal tendencies.
It is known that activity of the preschool organizations are regulated; the model rules of activity of kindergartens, schools, higher education institutions and other organizations of education are approved by the Government. Therefore problem of specialist training of the preschool organizations requires special attention from the public, pedagogy and psychology.
The scientific review of literature allocated theoretical prerequisites of philosophical and psychology-pedagogical understanding of essence of the questions for vocational training as specialists of the preschool organizations, so health workers in higher education institution. However, questions on formation of managerial competence for future specialists are insufficiently made, especially on the basis of information and communication technologies. It is necessary to present completely and systemically the psychology and pedagogical providing in higher education institution of development process of this component of professional competence for future specialist of the preschool organizations and medical practice. There are contradictions between the prevailing view on the managerial competence of the head in the preschool and medical organizations and modern understanding of the importance of development of managerial competence at future specialist; and also the need of purposeful development of managerial competence at future specialists and insufficient readiness of questions of the theory and practice on development of this component of the personal and professional competence at future specialist of educational process in the higher education institution.
The marked out contradictions, on the one hand, reflect common problems of training of future specialists, both the preschool, and medical organizations in higher education institution, and with another - indicate
the need of purposeful development and improvement of managerial competence as significant for effective implementation of professional activity at the specialists. The purpose of our research is the comparison of level of managerial competence at students of the pedagogical and medical higher education institutions. We recognize that managerial competence characterizes readiness of the specialist to apply them in typical and unusual situations, to gain the purpose, motive, structure, results of the professional activity, to do a number of the operations, in the necessary sequence, which are the part of action for activity management as own, and other people.
2. METHODS AND MATERIALS
The higher education system has two dimensions: the quantitative and qualitative aspects, and the sustained and comprehensive development of this system is a balanced growth in this dimension. Attention to quantitative growth and neglect of qualitative growth have led to adverse consequences such as academic failure, scientific dependence, lack of creativity. Thus, the managerial skills, which are the integral component of professional activity at future specialist, are both the direct product of vocational education, and the consequence of self-development of future specialist at all training levels.
The present study was conducted using a descriptive-comparative method, by means of the well-known method of George F. Bardie. The basis of two independent scientific research are the ideas of the concept of restrictions from British scientists Woodcock M. and Francis D.: PhD doctoral thesis of the Doctoral Candidate in the specialty “Preschool training and upbringing” of the Kazakh National Pedagogical University
named after Abay (Almaty) and the teaching staff scientific project of the course of communicative skills at the West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical University (Aktobe) “Development of managerial abilities at students of the Medical University during the study of the course on psychological disciplines” (the State registration No. 0117RKI0050), which is carried out in the initiative project. In compliance with theory of Woodcock M. and Francis D., the accelerated self-development of the person as the manager is possible on the basis of studying, understanding and overcoming the restrictions, interfering success and personal growth. “The concept of restrictions provides to management the clear and comprehensive way for checking of the available abilities and search of the real ways for development of personal and business qualities” (Tietze and Dick, 2013).
A methodology “Abilities for management” (Woodcock M. and Francis D, 1996) was suggested to students for the systematized assessment of the strengths and restrictions, interfering to perform effectively work on management, where the questionnaire includes forty two statements characterizing managerial possibilities and restrictions of the head according to the six scales (in the aspect of our research of potential heads – to find out who the students are. The structural components of managerial competence (ability) of the students of higher education institution in compliance on the questionnaire scale were revealed , having two variants of assessment: “Self-management, moral values, commitment, self-development, ability to solve the problems, creativity, communicative competence” (Smith III and Kleinman, 1989).
Universities are considered as the most important educational institutions, centers for the production of science and culture, as well as the training of the necessary specialists in the country, the creation and production of new knowledge and the advancement of the boundaries of science and knowledge. There were obtained quite expected data as the result of diagnostics of abilities to management at the students of 2-3 courses in the specialty “Preschool training and upbringing" of the Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abai (52 persons) – Almaty; and at the students of the 2-3 courses in specialty “General medicine”, “Public health care”, “Pharmacy”, “Nursing” of the West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical University (57 people) - Aktobe. The most of students of pedagogical and medical higher education institutions
revealed restrictions on the specified scales (Figure 1 and 2).
The restrictions of students KazNPU named after Abai
22% I II III IV V
Figure 1 - Results on determination of the restrictions at students of the Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abai (KazNPU named after Abai)
The restrictions of students WKSMU named after M.
I II III IV
Figure 2 - Results on determination of the restrictions at students of the West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical University (WKSMU named after M. Ospanov)
As this research represents a comparison of the untied or independent selections, taken from different general totalities, it was convenient to use nonparametric criterion - U. As this criterion is applied to assessment of distinctions on the level of expressiveness of any sign for two independent (untied) selections, differing on number of the subjects, included in them. The statistical hypotheses for identification of lack of difference between two different selections are formulated as follows:
- Hypothesis about lack of differences in restrictions of managerial competence at students of pedagogical and medical higher education institutions (zero hypothesis);
- Hypothesis about the importance of differences in restrictions of managerial competence at students of pedagogical and medical higher education institutions (alternative hypothesis).
It was confirmed the hypothesis as the result of calculations and comparisons, meaning differences in restrictions of managerial competence at students of pedagogical and medical higher education institutions. As it was supposed at the beginning of the comparative research, future specialists of the medical profile have less restrictions in
managerial competence, than students in specialties “Preschool training and upbringing” that in principle demands more detailed approach to the question about development of required abilities at students in the conditions of pedagogical higher education institution.
The analysis of foreign literature shows that many scientists were interested and continue to be interested in the aspects of professional development of the personality, both in the training process, and in practical activities. For example, research purpose of the Polish scientists was consisted in confirmation of importance of a social maturity in long- term sustainable development of the personality as the manager. The marked out methodological bases and the received results of researches allowed to define elements, forming complete competence of the leading and administrative subjects in management of the global environment, and it has a great importance in personnel policy of the universities and also in development of professional career of educators. Considering the fact that specialists, independently of the type of activity, are capable to operate both activity of people and the organization in general; it is necessary in training process to form and develop managerial skills and abilities, which develop into competence.
So, according to the scientists (Smith III and Kleinman, 1989), the students who aren‟t motivated to study they do not make any efforts or self-control for educational activity and, as a rule, have feeling of incompetence, low expectations concerning productivity, apathy, lack of interest in school activity and, therefore, low academic progress. In researches of the following scientists (Stipek, 1993) it was determined that well-motivated students are more interested (enthusiasts) and they
participate in training events and will persist more likely in difficult tasks, to cope actively with problems, to stay at school longer and to reach higher rates, than students who are less academically motivated. Therefore, the personal motivation, presented in structure of managerial competence at future specialists in the purposefulness, requires special attention and special work on development of positive educational motivation at students.
Scientists Woodcock M. and Francis D. consider that the management demands presence at the manager of the following skills and abilities: ability to control oneself; reasonable personal values; accurate personal aims; emphasis on constant personal growth; skill to solve problems; ingenuity and ability to innovations; the high need to influence on people around; knowledge of modern managerial approaches; ability to lead; ability to train and develop subordinates; ability to form and develop the effective working groups. And if any are absent from the above-mentioned skills and abilities, then it arises the restriction which can and has to be removed and improved by the personality. In compliance with this idea we consider that determination for future specialists of the advantages and restrictions in the course of their professional formation will allow them to correct in due time the managerial abilities and competence. For example, it is possible to adopt foreign experience management models of competences in the Latin American context, consisting of the pentagon, corresponding to the following competences:
1. Personal management (promote to efficiency of individual work in situations of pressure and difficulty);
2. Management of actions (possibility of the organization and planning of the action plans);
3. Competences on management of the environment (connected with management of the working environment);
4. Interpersonal management (understanding of own requirements and needs of others);
5. Management by influence (desire to exert impact on others, to convince them to follow the action plan).
In our early researches we offered the content of each operation in management actions:
1. Determination of the purpose – separation and acquaintance with object of activity, determination of requirements, conditions and rules of achievement of the result, implementation of process of understanding for the type of activity, allocation of personal opportunities in the chosen type of activity;
2. Planning – allocation of the main operations, determination of the order and the sequence of operations, determination of the rational way of performance for educational activity, correlation of the plan and means for implementation of the educational task, the personal opportunities;
3. Expedient performance - taking into account the conditions and plan of the educational task, correlation of conditions and plan of the educational task with the carried-out operations, performance of the task up to the end, obtaining result and checking of correctness on the received ratio, correction of unsuccessful actions, checking of correctness of the received ratio, correction of unsuccessful actions and checking of correctness of the received ratio, correction of unsuccessful actions;
4. Monitoring the process and results of activities - specification of content of the received result, search of the sample for comparison;
the choice of the way for checking the result depending on its contents; check implementation in the chosen way, comparison of the received results to the sample for the purpose of comparison; determination of the possibility for performance of the educational task by other ways; clarification of the reasons for which there was a deviation from the goal;
5. Estimation of the process and results of activities - specification of criteria of estimation, the choice of the way for estimation of result, estimation implementation, and comparison of criteria of estimation: with the received result, comparison of personal estimation with norms, correction of estimated actions.
So, we marked out in structure of the developed professional competences of future experts of еру medical profile - administrative abilities as personal experience of use of the created abilities in the solution of vital problems that is assumption of managerial solutions in activity and professional activity of the person. According to Simonov V.P. (1999), managerial skills and abilities, as difficult synthesis of cognitive, subject-practical and personal experience of professional activity of the students, are indicators of level of his professional competence. Within scientific research of the teaching staff WKSMU named after M. Ospanov, the working definition to managerial abilities of students of medical school was given, representing “the integrative characteristic of the student, including totality of the acquired knowledge, the valuable orientations, socially important and professionally important personal qualities, sufficient for full-fledged management of educational and professional activity, in general allowing to the graduate of medical school to be demanded in the conditions of the competitive environment
of market economy”. It is interesting that self-controllability is determined by foreign researchers as the most important condition of the organization of lifelong training. The managerial competence of the specialists at preschool education was determined as knowledge and ability to apply the managerial methods, techniques and means in the professional activity in the aspects of training and upbringing (Thomas and Knezek, 2008). We also agree with conclusions of scientists that the managerial culture of the specialist is formed and developed only in educational cognitive activity. Thus, the managerial skills which are the integral component of professional activity at future specialist are both the direct product of vocational training, and the consequence of self-development of future specialist at all grade levels.
The obtained data allow us to organize effectively the formations and development in higher education institution of managerial competence at future specialist: on the one hand - substantial filling and enrichment of academical subjects by the questions of pedagogical management, the theory and practice of managerial activity in the pedagogical and medical organizations; on the other hand - purposeful inclusion of future specialists in the practical-oriented activities, understood as the special organization of educational process, bearing in itself features of both educational, and future professional activity; based on modeling of subject and social content of future professional activity of the specialist, and providing mastering by the student of the professional knowledge which are contextually included in the managerial situation with their practical application. It was recommended to apply interactive methods of training as game-technical management in the working process on development of managerial abilities and competences at the students.
Management processes take place where the general activity of people is carried out for achievement of the certain results in all difficult dynamic systems (social, psychological, biological, technical, economical and managerial, etc.). Characteristics of management as special type of activity as process of system and creative regulation of activity for subjects of the educational institution which is shown in the organizational, projecting, predicting, coordinating and controlling functions, act as the basis of understanding of the essence, content and structure of managerial competence at future specialists.
It is known that effective training of future specialist depends on understanding by the person of social prestige of the chosen profession and also on the personal importance and orientation in the perspective growth of the future professional activity. The new social and economic relations, which caused gradual transition of education to the sphere of services, dictate modification of the theory and practice for vocational training of future specialists. It is necessary for any specialist in the conditions of the most severe market relations constantly to be improved professionally in order to be ready to real life, to be mobile, active and creative. In principle, all similar requirements are imposed in all normative documents of the international and state significance, accumulated in one professional quality of the specialist - it is the competitiveness. These problems closely concern future specialists, both preschool education, and medicine as the sphere of their professional activity is directly connected with vulnerable category of people – minor children and patients, that is, people at stages of a disease, treatment and recovery.
The qualification characteristics of the graduates, receiving both secondary vocational and the higher education, have one requirement among many others: it is an ability to carry out organizational and managerial activity in possible competences. Management in all spheres of human activity is the universal activity instrument on ensuring its systemacity, the target orientation and effectiveness, flexibility and variability. Therefore, in our opinion, mastering managerial abilities, managerial competence is the integral component of the general culture of the specialist‟s personality at any profile. Managers at all levels of the professional hierarchy are aimed at performance of the task for creation of the best option of the future. It is natural that the growing variability and hostility of the environment place more and more great demands on the leading heads therefore managers have to develop own attitudes, skills and abilities which will allow them to implement management accurately and effectively in the coming years . So the problems of preschool education are closely connected with vocational training of teachers which relevance is obvious in the conditions of development of modern computer technologies as at the heart of the transformational changes, happening in the system of preschool education, there is training of pedagogical personnel in compliance with the last international requirements and also requirements of State general education standards (SGES) to professional competence of the specialist. In this regard one of the current problems facing modern pedagogy is search of the ways and means for optimization of the training process of future doctors for the solution of managerial tasks in the new sociocultural conditions that is development of managerial competences by them as readiness for productive professional activity. The managerial competence and managerial thinking are the necessary component of common cultural and
world outlook development of future doctors, as it leads to essentially broader ideas of regularities, observable both in the conditions of practice, and in questions of scientific knowledge. Meanwhile, studying of the theory and practice of student training at medical schools shows that formation of managerial competence during the educational process is not always projected and implemented, that is, there is no adequate technological reinforcement of this process that substantially affects quality of training of graduates.
Therefore we consider that at the specialist of the preschool organizations and health workers, besides professional and pedagogical competences, the managerial competence must be formed as the effective management of professional activity directly depends on high-quality approach to management within the powers of each personality. This is due to the fact that the relevance of researches, consisting in purposeful works on development of managerial competence at future specialists of the preschool organizations and health workers within high school education. The scientific novelty of this research is represented by the comparative analysis of levels of managerial competence at the students of pedagogical and medical higher education institutions. The general scientific methods of scientific research were applied in the work, including: bibliographic search, subject systematization, analysis of the normative and legislative framework, collecting and analysis of statistical data, ranging method, group discussion, poll, questioning, testing, etc. As development of managerial competence at future specialist is the component of vocational training of the specialist in higher education institution then the bases of modeling of this process are target, dynamic, substantial, organizational and activity, productive components. So, the result of development is managerial competence at future specialists of the
preschool and medical organizations, understood as the dynamic, incomplete, constantly enriched, integrated personal and professional characteristic which is expressed in knowledge, aspiration, readiness and ability to perform professionally the managerial functions in the specific field of activity, providing the effective solution of the professional tasks. Thus, the carried-out theoretical and analytical work on the given problem allowed us to confirm the relevance and scientific character of our research, to express the point of view on the problem of development of managerial competence at future specialists, to determine by the diagnostic way the level of restrictions in the management sphere and to compare the obtained data with the corresponding conclusions and suggestions.
BEKISHEV, Kas, 2013. "Trends in development of the educational system in the Republic of Kazakhstan." Russian Journal of General Chemistry, Vol. 83, No.3: 594-603.
CANO GONZÁLEZ, Rufino, 2009. "Tutoría universitaria y aprendizaje por competencias Cómo lograrlo?" Revista electrónica interuniversitaria de formación del profesorado, Vol. 12, No.1:
ISAACS, Rico, 2010. "„Papa‟–Nursultan Nazarbayev and the Discourse of Charismatic Leadership and Nation‐Building in Post‐Soviet Kazakhstan." Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, Vol. 10, No.3:
KOLB, Alice Y and KOLB, David A, 2005. "Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education." Academy of management learning & education, Vol. 4, No.2:
NAZARBAYEV, Nursultan, 1997. "Prosperity, security and ever growing welfare of all the Kazakhstanis." Address of the President of the
Republic of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to the People of
Kazakhstan, October, Vol. 10, No. 5: 4-23.
SMITH III, Allen C and Kleinman, Sherryl, 1989. "Managing emotions in medical school: Students' contacts with the living and the dead." Social psychology quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 5: 56-69.
STIPEK, Deborah J, 1993. "Motivation to learn: From theory to practice." Vol. 45, No.5: 1-20.
THOMAS, Lajeane G and Knezek, Donald G, 2008. Information, communications, and educational technology standards for students, teachers, and school leaders. International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education, Springer, Boston (USA).
TIETZE, Susanne and Dick, Penny, 2013. "The victorious English language: Hegemonic practices in the management academy." Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 22, No.1: 122-134.