Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.41 N° 79
Octubre
Diciembre
2023
Recibido el 19/07/23 Aceptado el 15/09/23
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
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Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 41, Nº 79 (2023), 471-484
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Digitalization of criminal proceedings in
Russia and on the international stage *
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4179.32
Tatyana Kimovna Ryabinina **
Daria Olegovna Chistilina ***
Abstract
The article considers the application of articial intelligence
systems in criminal proceedings. In jurisprudence, it is possible
to use information technologies through the introduction of
electronic document management and remote holding of court
sessions. However, the question of automating decision making
remains open, especially in the eld of criminal procedure. The
purpose of the present study was to identify the positive and
negative features of articial intelligence systems operating in
the criminal practice of various countries and to consider the
possibility of introducing such systems into the Russian criminal
process, taking into account their compliance with their purpose and
principles. The methodology included a systematic method of scientic
cognition, a comparative legal method and a formal logical method, etc.
During the research, the regulatory and legal framework of dierent
countries was studied, which makes it possible to apply articial intelligence
systems in criminal proceedings, as well as to assess the work of foreign and
Russian researchers in this eld. It is concluded that the implementation of
such principles as: the independence of judges and the adversarial nature
of the parties in criminal proceedings are dicult in a legal framework
dominated by articial intelligence.
Keywords: criminal proceedings; articial intelligence; judge; decision-
making; digitalization.
* The work was carried out as part of the implementation of the development program of the Southwest
State University project “Priority-2030”.
** Southwest State University, Kursk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9899-0879.
Email: tatyanakimovna-r@yandex.ru
*** Southwest State University, Kursk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0115-8876.
Email: darya-chistilina@yandex.ru
472
Tatyana Kimovna Ryabinina y Daria Olegovna Chistilina
Digitalization of criminal proceedings in Russia and on the international stage
Digitalización de los procesos penales en Rusia y en el
escenario internacional
Resumen
El artículo considera la aplicación de sistemas de inteligencia articial
en procesos penales. En jurisprudencia, es posible utilizar las tecnologías
de la información mediante la introducción de la gestión electrónica de
documentos y la celebración remota de sesiones judiciales. Sin embargo,
la cuestión de la automatización de la toma de decisiones sigue abierta,
especialmente en el ámbito procesal penal. El propósito del presente
estudio fue identicar las características positivas y negativas de los
sistemas de inteligencia articial que funcionan en la práctica criminal de
varios países y considerar la posibilidad de introducir dichos sistemas en el
proceso penal ruso, teniendo en cuenta su cumplimiento con su propósito
y principios. La metodología incluyo un método sistemático de cognición
cientíca, un método legal comparativo y un método lógico formal, etc.
Durante la investigación, se estudió el marco regulatorio y legal de distintos
países lo que permite aplicar sistemas de inteligencia articial en procesos
penales, así como valorar el trabajo de investigadores extranjeros y rusos
en este campo. Se concluye que la implementación de principios, como:
la independencia de los jueces y la naturaleza contradictoria de las partes
en el proceso penal son difíciles en un marco jurídico dominado por la
inteligencia articial.
Palabras clave: procesos penales; inteligencia articial; juez; toma de
decisiones; digitalización.
Introduction
According to some research, robots will soon replace human labor in the
intellectual sphere as well. People will have to learn how to interact with the
products of human intelligence (Rezaev, Tregubova, 2020). Moreover, the
National Strategy for the Development of Articial Intelligence, adopted
at the end of 2019, is focused on the increasing introduction of automated
systems using articial intelligence in social organizations and state bodies
(Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 490 of October
10, 2019 “On the development of articial intelligence in the Russian
Federation”).
According to a survey conducted by the All-Russian Center for the Study
of Public Opinion, 85% of respondents did not express concern that their
workplace might disappear in the foreseeable future due to robotics. At
the same time, we should note that some experts predict an increase in
unemployment due to technological progress (Abramov et al., 2020).
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 41 Nº 79 (2023): 471-484
For manual labor, such a replacement will certainly be a positive
moment, but the automation of intellectual labor also raises a number of
questions. It is necessary to develop such algorithms that will allow us not
to doubt the objectiveness and accuracy of decisions.
Articial intelligence systems are successfully applied in many areas
(autopilots in airplanes and cars, nancial management, medical diagnostics,
etc.). However, the areas where it is necessary to make key decisions have
not completely switched to automation. Articial intelligence systems only
help a person to make a decision by providing from one to several possible
answers to a question. The nal choice is still up to the person. In addition,
there are a number of ethical points that must be observed.
Automated systems are gradually being introduced in jurisprudence
sphere, but their extension to decision-making by judges, especially in
criminal cases, causes discussions in the scientic community.
Research on this topic was conducted by both Russian and foreign
scientists. A. A. Nasonov and R. Yu. Malueva proposed to expand the
electronic document ow in the Russian criminal process (Nasonov and
Malueva, 2020). O. I. Andreeva and O. A. Zaitsev consider it necessary to
simplify the use of electronic signatures using a graphic tablet and a writing
pen (Andreeva et al., 2020). The issue of spreading electronic interaction
mechanisms to all forms of legal proceedings was considered by I. S.
Denisov (Denisov, 2018).
The works of foreign scientists are also of interest. Christopher Rigano
(Rigano, 2019). Shai Danziger, Jonathan Levav, and Liora Avnaim-Pesso
analyzed factors that inuence judges’ process decision-making and the
possibility of leveling negative manifestations through the use of articial
intelligence systems (Danziger et al., 2011). Benoit Dupont, Yuan Stevens,
Hannes Westermann, Michael Joyce in their work “Articial Intelligence
in the Context of Crime and Criminal Justice” considered COMPAS
(Correctional Oender Management Proling for Alternative Sanctions)
and PSA (Public Safety Assessment) systems used in the United States
(Dupont et al., 2019).
However, the issue of e-justice systems functioning has not been fully
studied. In the above-mentioned works, the authors only analyze certain
aspects of articial intelligence system application in criminal proceedings,
without giving an unambiguous answer to the question of the possibility of
full automation of decision-making by judges.
Clearly, such decisions will be distinguished by an unbiased approach
based on the analysis of statistical data. However, the limited possibilities
of individualization make us think about the introduction of articial
intelligence systems in the criminal process.
474
Tatyana Kimovna Ryabinina y Daria Olegovna Chistilina
Digitalization of criminal proceedings in Russia and on the international stage
Within the framework of this paper, we will consider various approaches
to the denition of articial intelligence, the possibility of its introduction
into criminal proceedings. We will also discuss foreign experience in
using electronic justice systems, as well as compliance with the purpose
and principles of criminal proceedings, and the ethical requirements of
decisions made by robot judges.
1. Materials and Methods
The goal of the present study is to identify the positive and negative
aspects of articial intelligence systems application in criminal proceedings.
The objectives of the study are: 1) consideration of various approaches
to the denition of the concept “articial intelligence”; 2) conducting a
comparative study of the theory and practice of using articial intelligence
systems in criminal proceedings in Russia and foreign countries; 3)
identifying ethical and systemic contradictions in the application of articial
intelligence systems in decision-making by judges; 4) nding and solving
problems in the use of articial intelligence in criminal proceedings.
The methodology includes a systematic method of scientic cognition that
reects the relationship of social, economic, political and legal phenomena
with the possibility of introducing articial intelligence systems into the
criminal process. To achieve the research objectives and solve the tasks set,
more specic methods were used, such as the comparative legal method
through which the features of legal regulation of electronic justice systems
functioning in the criminal process of various countries are analyzed. There
was also applied the formal logical method consisting in the interpretation
of legal norms content regulating articial intelligence systems, etc.
In the course of the study, it is planned to consider the foreign experience
of implementing articial intelligence systems in the criminal process. To
perform this, it is necessary to compare the regulatory and legal frameworks
regulating the possibility of functioning of e-justice systems in dierent
countries.
An analysis of international legislation in this area will allow us to
identify the attitude of the international community to the problem under
study and to implement some norms in the Russian criminal process.
The authors rely on the works of Russian and foreign scientists, which
contain a detailed analysis of certain aspects of the topic. Summing up the
existing legislative and practical restrictions will make it possible to identify
the optimal ways to solve existing problems.
475
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 41 Nº 79 (2023): 471-484
2. Results analysis
In recent years, we have heard more and more about electronic justice.
Electronic justice is a method and form of implementation of procedural
actions provided for by law, based on the use of information technologies in
the activities of courts, including the interaction of courts, individuals and
legal entities in electronic (digital) form. This denition is given in the Decree
of the Judicial Department at the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
No. 362 of November 26, 2015 (Decree of the Judicial Department at the
Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of November 26, 2015 No. 362
“On approval of the List of basic concepts and terms used in the normative
legal acts of the Judicial Department regulating the use of information and
telecommunications technologies in the activities of courts, departments of
the Judicial Department in the territorial entities of the Russian Federation
and institutions of the Judicial Department).
According to this denition, electronic justice is focused exclusively on
the judicial system and does not involve decision-making by an automated
system. To a greater extent, this approach is explained by the desire to
facilitate some procedural points during the trial, rather than replace the
judge.
Partially electronic document management has already been introduced
in many branches of procedural law. It is now possible to conduct court
proceedings remotely, but robots have not yet completely replaced a person
in any legal profession.
The elements of electronic justice are: openness of information; remote
interaction; accessible database of court decisions; international recognition
of court decisions; electronic document management; electronic remote
initiation of proceedings and submission of documents; electronic provision
of information; electronic consulting (Ovchinnikov and Antonov, 2016).
Some elements of electronic justice already exist and are being developed
in Russia in all forms of legal proceedings. The use of videoconferencing
during the trial is provided for by Russian legislation, which reduces court
costs and speeds up case hearing, as well as the costs of escorting the
accused and minimizes the risk of escape during the prisoner escort under
guard (Soychuk and Kolpakova, 2020). However, not all courts, especially
local district courts, have the technical capability to provide this type of
communication, which will hinder its implementation. However, on the
whole, it is not new for Russian pre-trial and judicial practice to be able
to submit petitions, complaints and applications in electronic form, signed
with an electronic signature, notifying the participants of the process via
SMS or e-mail.
476
Tatyana Kimovna Ryabinina y Daria Olegovna Chistilina
Digitalization of criminal proceedings in Russia and on the international stage
In addition, in Russia, the composition of the court for the hearing of each
criminal case is formed taking into account the workload and specialization
of judges by using an automated information system, which ensures
impartiality. If it is impossible to use it, it is allowed to form the composition
of the court in a dierent order, excluding the inuence of persons interested
in the outcome of the trial on its formation (Dobrovlyanina, 2019).
In foreign practice, when resolving civil, arbitration and administrative
cases, they also resort to the help of automated systems, which allows
optimizing the decision-making process. For example, in Brazil, there is an
“Electronic Judge” system that can be used to resolve disputes arising from
road accidents. The program algorithm analyzes the submitted documents
and evidence, and then oers a draft verdict to be considered by the court.
In Germany, an automated system is used to resolve claims for child
benets. Online trials for some categories of cases (mainly arbitration and
civil cases) are held in Australia, Canada and China. In China, the world’s
rst Hangzhou Internet court was opened in 2017. Its peculiarity is that the
proceedings are conducted entirely via the Internet, starting with the ling
of a claim and ending with the execution of a court decision (Sheremetyeva
et al., 2020).
The term “articial intelligence” was rst introduced by John McCarthy
at the rst-ever conference on articial intelligence at Dartmouth College.
He dened it as the science and technology of creating intelligent machines
(IBM Cloud Education, 2020).
Later denitions give a detailed understanding of its purpose.
Articial intelligence is the ability of a machine to perceive the
environment, respond to it independently and perform tasks that usually
require human intelligence and decision-making processes, but without
direct human intervention (Rigano, 2019).
Articial intelligence is also dened as the ability to process a lot of
data based on algorithms and machine learning, which allows one to detect
and analyze patterns for automatic generation of autonomous activities
and new decision-making rules that are not oered by people (IBM Cloud
Education, 2020).
A more scientic denition revealing the principle of articial intelligence
operation was proposed by the participants of the European Committee on
Crime Problems: “a set of certain methods, including mathematical logic,
statistics, probability, computational neuroscience and computer science,
in order to enable a machine to imitate or even replace human cognitive
abilities” (European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC). (2020).
Feasibility study on a future council of Europe instrument on articial
intelligence and criminal law. Strasbourg).