Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.41 N° 79
Octubre
Diciembre
2023
Recibido el 05/05/23 Aceptado el 03/07/23
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
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cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 41, Nº 79 (2023), 402-417
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Justice for war crimes in Ukraine: In
search of an optimal model
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4179.27
Oleksandr Khan *
Ihor Nazarenko **
Hennadii Zvirianskyi ***
Oleksii Manyk ****
Daria Heta *****
Olga Shaituro ******
Abstract
The article is devoted to the investigation of the problems
of nding and applying the optimal mechanism for bringing to
international criminal responsibility persons guilty of committing
war crimes on the territory of Ukraine. During the research a
set of methods of scientic knowledge was used. Among them:
dialectical and formal logic, analysis, abstraction, historical,
comparative, system-structural and modeling methods. The investigated
problem is considered through Ukraine’s obligation to ensure compliance
with the right to a fair trial for persons accused of committing war crimes.
The paper provides current statistics on the number of war crimes
committed on the territory of Ukraine in 2022 and, furthermore, provides
their classication in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of the
International Criminal Court. The known historical models of international
criminal justice are highlighted, their general features and dierences are
given. The shortcomings of the model of judicial procedure for war crimes
chosen by the Government of Ukraine are highlighted. As a result, the
author’s model of international criminal justice is proposed in accordance
with the specics of the situation in Ukraine.
* Candidate of Law, Associate Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure and Organization
of Pretrial Investigation of the Kharkiv National University of Internal Aairs, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9912-1547
** Candidate of Law, Dean of Faculty 2 of Kharkiv National University of Internal Aairs, Ukraine.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3544-9863
*** Candidate of Law, Dean of Faculty 3 of Kharkiv National University of Internal Aairs, Ukraine.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6687-8575
**** Senior Lecturer of the Department of Criminal Procedure and Organization of Pretrial Investigation
of the Kharkiv National University of Internal Aairs, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-
0002-4384-1219
***** Candidate of Law, Associate Professor of the Department of Fundamental and Legal Disciplines of the
Kharkiv National University of Internal Aairs, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-
0570-4846
****** Doctor of Law, Associate Professor of the Department of Criminal Law Disciplines of the V.N.
Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0614-0595
403
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 41 Nº 79 (2023): 402-417
Keywords: war crimes; international justice; hybrid courts; right to fair
trial; police activity in Ukraine.
Justicia para los crímenes de guerra en Ucrania: En
busca de un modelo óptimo
Resumen
El artículo está dedicado a la investigación de los problemas de
encontrar y aplicar el mecanismo óptimo para llevar a la responsabilidad
penal internacional a las personas culpables de cometer crímenes de guerra
en el territorio de Ucrania. Durante la investigación se utilizó un conjunto
de métodos de conocimiento cientíco. Entre ellos: lógica dialéctica y
formal, análisis, abstracción, métodos históricos, comparativos, sistema-
estructurales y modelización. El problema investigado se considera a través
de la obligación de Ucrania de garantizar el cumplimiento del derecho a un
juicio justo para las personas acusadas de cometer crímenes de guerra. El
trabajo proporciona estadísticas actuales sobre el número de crímenes de
guerra cometidos en el territorio de Ucrania en 2022 y, ademas, proporciona
su clasicación de acuerdo con las disposiciones del Estatuto de la Corte
Penal Internacional. Se destacan los modelos históricos conocidos de
justicia penal internacional, se dan sus características generales y sus
diferencias. Se destacan las deciencias del modelo de procedimiento
judicial por crímenes de guerra elegido por el Gobierno de Ucrania. Como
resultado, se propone el modelo de justicia penal internacional del autor de
acuerdo con las especicidades de la situación en Ucrania.
Palabras clave: crímenes de guerra; justicia internacional; tribunales
híbridos; derecho a un juicio justo; actividad policial en
Ucrania.
Introduction
The UN General Assembly, in its resolution of March 2, 2022, qualied
the Russian attack on Ukraine as an act of aggression that violates Article
2(4) of the UN Charter (A/ES-11/L.1 resolution, 2022). In a resolution dated
March 24, 2022, the General Assembly, meeting again in a special emergency
session, demanded «the immediate cessation of military operations by the
Russian Federation against Ukraine, including any attacks on the civilian
population and civilian objects.» (A/ES-11/L.2 resolution, 2022).
404 Oleksandr Khan, Ihor Nazarenko, Hennadii Zvirianskyi, Oleksii Manyk, Daria Heta y Olga Shaituro
Justice for war crimes in Ukraine: In search of an optimal model
In addition to the fact that the invasion of the troops of the Russian
Federation into the territory of Ukraine in itself has the characteristics of a
crime of aggression, a large number of international crimes of other types
are committed during military operations on the territory of Ukraine - we
are talking about war crimes.
The Geneva Conventions of 1949, which codied international
humanitarian law after the Second World War, contained the rst ever list
of war crimes, which included the following actions: intentional killing;
torture and inhumane treatment, including biological experiments;
intentionally causing severe suering or serious injury; causing damage to
health; illegal destruction and appropriation of property, if it is not caused
by military necessity; forcing a civilian or a prisoner of war to serve in the
armed forces of an enemy state; deprivation of the right to an impartial
trial; illegal deportation, transfer of civilians under protection; illegal arrest
of civilians under protection; taking hostages.
This list was signicantly supplemented by Additional Protocol I of
1977, including the following among serious violations: conducting certain
medical experiments; turning the civilian population, individual civilians
or demilitarized and safe zones into targets of attack; carrying out an
indiscriminate attack aecting the civilian population or civilian objects,
when it is known that such an attack will cause a large number of deaths and
injuries among civilians; treacherous use of the emblem of the Red Cross,
the Red Crescent and other protective and identifying signs; relocation by
the occupying power of a part of its own civilian population to the occupied
territory or deportation or relocation of all or part of the population of the
occupied territory; unjustied delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war
or civilians; apartheid; attack on historical monuments and a number of
others (Repetskyi, Lysyk, 2009).
Quite detailed statistics of war crimes committed on the territory
of Ukraine are provided by the participants of the Global Initiative
T4P (Tribunal for Putin) - Ukrainian human rights non-governmental
organizations. To document the events, the organization’s employees
monitor open sources (social networks, news in the media, reports of the
authorities), looking for information about a specic event that has signs
of a war crime (shelling of a residential building, killing of civilians, torture
and other crimes under the Rome Statute).
Data also comes directly from witnesses and victims. Where possible,
employees of participating organizations record events in the eld, take
pictures of the destruction from drones, and personally communicate
with witnesses of the events (T4P, 2022). According to their data, in
accordance with the legal qualication of events under the Rome Statute of
the International Criminal Court, they identied the following types of war
crimes and their number:
405
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 41 Nº 79 (2023): 402-417
1. «Attacking or bombarding, by whatever means, towns, villages,
dwellings or buildings which are undefended and which are not
military objectives» (article 8 (2) (b) (v)) – 198 cases;
2. «Intentionally directing attacks against civilian objects, that is,
objects which are not military objectives» (article 8 (2) (b) (ii))
5283 cases;
3. «Intentionally launching an attack in the knowledge that such attack
will cause incidental loss of life or injury to civilians or damage to
civilian objects or widespread» (article 8 (2) (b) (iv)) – 10441 cases;
4. «Murder (article 7 (1) (a) or Wilful killing» (article 8 (2) (a) (i))
268 cases;
5. «Wilfully causing great suering, or serious injury to body or
health» (article 8 (2) (a) (iii)) – 154 cases;
6. «Deportation or forcible transfer of population» (article 7 (1) (d)) –
21 cases;
7. «Enforced disappearance of persons» (article 7 (1) (i)) – 837 cases;
8. «Torture (article 7 (f) or Torture or inhuman treatment, including
biological experiments» (article 8 (2) (a) (ii)) - 232 cases;
9. «Taking of hostages» (article 8 (2) (a) (viii)) – 10 cases;
10. «Intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations,
material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance
or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the
United Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection given
to civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed
conict» (article 8 (2) (b) (iii)) – 44 cases;
11.