Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Publicación cientíca en formato digital
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185
Depósito legal pp 197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 74
2022
Recibido el 04/12/2022 Aceptado el 06/06/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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Vol. 40, Nº 74 (2022), 515-530
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Regulatory policy of the foreign
economic activity of the state
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4074.28
Nila Tiurina *
Ievgeniia Shelest **
Illya Khadzhynov ***
Oksana Ivashchenko ****
Olha Harva *****
Abstract
The subject of the article was the analysis of the state
regulatory policy in the eld of securing foreign economic activity
and the development of relevant directions for its adaptation
in the conditions of martial law. In the study, the regulatory
and legal support for the implementation of foreign economic
activity in Ukraine was formed. Peculiarities of implementation
of international trade activities in the conditions of martial law
are determined. The losses of Ukraine’s industrial potential during military
operations are analyzed. The rates of decline of export and import operations
during the period of martial law are estimated. Regulatory activity of the
authorities with respect to stabilization of foreign economic activity and
directions with respect to support of business entities have been studied.
The conclusions highlight areas related to the support and activation of
economic activity, which are aimed at creating the necessary conditions for
the formation of a positive climate of innovation and investment, ecient
and safe logistic ows, and a regulatory and legal eld that is adapted to the
standards of European countries.
Keywords: regulatory policy; foreign economic activity; international
trade activity; innovation; investment climate.
* PhD in Economics, Professor, Head of the Department of Economics, Management and Administration,
Khmelnytskyi National University, 11 Institutskaya Str., Khmelnytsky, 29016, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1337-1460
** PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of HR Management
and Labor Economics, Khmelnytskyi National University, 11 Institutskaya Str., Khmelnytsky, 29016,
Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1048-6214
*** Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of International Economic, Vasyl
Stus Donetsk National University, 21, 600-richya Str., Vinnytsia, 21021, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://
orcid.org/0000-0003-3909-3171
**** PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Economics and Management of
Foreign Economic Activities, National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit, 1, Pidhirna Str.,
Kyiv, 04107, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8490-778X
***** PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory,
Entrepreneurship and Trade, Khmelnytskyi National University, 11, Instytutska Str., Khmelnytsky,
29016, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4404-3219
516
Nila Tiurina, Ievgeniia Shelest, Illya Khadzhynov, Oksana Ivashchenko y Olha Harva
Regulatory policy of the foreign economic activity of the state
Política reguladora de las actividades económicas
exteriores del Estado
Resumen
El objeto del artículo fue el análisis de la política regulatoria del Estado en
materia de aseguramiento de la actividad económica exterior y el desarrollo
de las orientaciones pertinentes para su adecuación en las condiciones de
la ley marcial. En el estudio, se formó el soporte regulatorio y legal para
la implementación de la actividad económica extranjera en Ucrania. Se
determinan las peculiaridades de la implementación de actividades de
comercio internacional en las condiciones de la ley marcial. Se analizan
las pérdidas del potencial industrial de Ucrania durante las operaciones
militares. Se estiman las tasas de disminución de las operaciones de
exportación e importación durante el período de la ley marcial. Se ha
estudiado la actividad regulatoria de las autoridades con respecto a la
estabilización de la actividad económica exterior y las direcciones con
respecto al apoyo de las entidades comerciales. En las conclusiones se
destacan áreas relacionadas con el apoyo y activación de la actividad
económica, las cuales están orientadas a crear las condiciones necesarias
para la formación de un clima positivo de innovación e inversión, ujos
logísticos ecientes y seguros, y un campo normativo y legal que sea
adaptado a las normas de los países europeos.
Palabras clave: política regulatoria; actividad económica exterior;
actividad comercial internacional; innovación; clima de
inversión.
Introduction
The armed conict in Ukraine led to the complication of conducting
foreign economic activities of the state and contributed to the search for
new mechanisms for adapting the conduct of foreign economic activities at
all levels. One of these directions is the formation of a new mechanism of
state regulation of foreign economic activity, which will contribute to the
support of international cooperation, the provision of eective measures
to ensure the income of the state and enterprises, and the search for new
forms of interaction in the business environment for the sale of domestic
products and services on international markets.
The regulatory policy of foreign economic activity should be considered
as a set of measures aimed at introducing the domestic economic system
into the global economy, while it is important to preserve and protect
domestic interests and the economic security of the state. However, Russia’s
517
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 74 (2022): 515-530
military aggression led to signicant restrictions on the functioning of
foreign economic activity in the country, which requires new approaches
to the organization of international cooperation, taking into account the
relevant risks and threats.
In the conditions of military restrictions, the main tasks are to ensure the
export of quality goods to replenish the state budget, on the other hand, it is
important to support the import of goods of primary necessity to ensure the
life of society. The researched issues are currently relevant and complex for
the state, which requires a thorough study of both theoretical and practical
activities, which will allow the formation of an appropriate mechanism for
ensuring the regulation and development of foreign economic activity in
Ukraine.
The purpose of the article is the analysis of the regulatory policy of the
state in matters of ensuring foreign economic activity and the development
of relevant directions for its adaptation in the conditions of martial law.
To achieve the set goal, the following tasks were formed and solved in
the work:
The regulatory policy of the state in matters of its foreign economic
activity was investigated.
Changes in indicators of foreign economic activity in the pre-war
and war period were analyzed;
Developed directions for the development of a mechanism for
regulating foreign economic activity, taking into account modern
challenges and threats.
The dicult conditions of the pandemic and military aggression led to
a signicant decrease in foreign economic activity in Ukraine due to the
destruction of many enterprises that were strategic for export activities
in Ukraine. The destruction of industrial giants that exported products to
various countries led to a decrease in the export potential of the state. Such
industrial enterprises as the Azovstal Metallurgical Plant, the Mariupol
Metallurgical Plant named after Ilyich, the Branch of the State Enterprise
ANTK named after O. K. Antonova, Kremenchug Oil Renery, PJSC Avdiiv
Coke Chemical Plant, State Enterprise “Zorya - Mashproekt Scientic-
Production Gas Turbo Construction Complex” and others, which provided
50% of the state’s industrial exports.
The agricultural sector suered a great loss due to the loss and damage
of grain crops, which aected the world food market. In such conditions,
one of the main tasks of the state is to create proper safe ways of import
substitution of necessary goods and services in the regional section,
regardless of hostilities.
518
Nila Tiurina, Ievgeniia Shelest, Illya Khadzhynov, Oksana Ivashchenko y Olha Harva
Regulatory policy of the foreign economic activity of the state
Today, in Ukraine, the issue of regulation of foreign economic activity
is controlled by such authorities as the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the National Bank of Ukraine, the Ministry
of Economy, regional and local foreign economic activity management
bodies. As for the regulatory and legal support for the implementation of
foreign economic activity in Ukraine, it is regulated by the following basic
legislative acts in the conditions of martial law:
Law of Ukraine “On Foreign Economic Activity” No. 959-XII, dated
August 1, 2021 (as amended), which regulates the main provisions on
conducting foreign economic activity in Ukraine;
Law of Ukraine “On the Nationwide Program for the Adaptation of the
Legislation of Ukraine to the Legislation of the European Union” No. 1629-
IV dated 04.11.2018 іn which the purpose and directions of adaptation
of the regulatory and legal system of Ukraine to European standards are
established.
The implementation of foreign economic activity is regulated on the
basis of such methods as:
licensing and quotas of goods and services, registration of foreign
economic activity subjects, conclusion of international contracts,
restriction of export and import of certain types of goods and
services; currency control;
customs and administrative registration of operations related to
foreign economic activity; granting of licenses for alcohol and
tobacco products; certication of goods imported into the territory
of Ukraine;
implementation of control in sanitary-epidemiological, veterinary,
phytosanitary, ecological areas; registration of medicinal products
and those used in non-traditional medicine.
Starting from the period of martial law, the state introduced a number of
resolutions and legislative acts that regulate the implementation of foreign
economic activity in Ukraine under such conditions.
One of these directions was the closure of some checkpoints on the
borders with the aggressor country to ensure the security of the state.
These measures are controlled by the Decree of the Сabinet of Ministers
of Ukraine No. 188 dated February 26, 2022 “On the temporary closure of
some checkpoints across the state border and checkpoints”. The negative
consequence is the termination of all foreign economic relations with
Russia, since the majority of industrial exports and imports of goods and
energy were carried out with this country.
519
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 74 (2022): 515-530
Establishing new ties and logistics chains requires time and money,
development of appropriate regulatory support for operations with EU
countries. To support foreign economic activity and its regulation in the new
conditions, the state adopted a number of resolutions that will contribute
to this.
Thus, Resolution of the Сabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 314-220
dated 11.05.2022 “Some issues of ensuring the conduct of economic activity
in conditions of martial law” is designed to simplify the procedure for
obtaining permits for the implementation of foreign economic activity for
those economic entities that implement it in their activities.
Resolution of the Сabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 153-2022 dated
14.06.2022 “On the list of goods of critical import” and Resolution of
the Сabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 289 of 16.03.2022 “Some issues
of goods of critical import”. The above documents regulate the issue of
dening critical import and export of goods, the list of such goods, and
the identication of sectors that are critical for ensuring the livelihood of
the country and the population. The denition of such goods and services
allows to maximize the work of enterprises and organizations in the existing
conditions to ensure the livelihood of the population and contribute to the
lling of the country’s budget.
The regulation of issues related to the export of agricultural goods from
the country, the allocation of quotas, licenses and the export of a number
of goods (wheat, meat, our, other meat by-products) are regulated by
Resolution of the Сabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 1031 dated 16.09.2022
“On making changes to Appendices 1 and 5 to the Resolution of the Cabinet
of Ministers of Ukraine dated December 29, 2021 No. 1424”, Resolution of
the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 422 dated 04.09.2022 “On making
changes to Appendices 1 and 5 to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers
of Ukraine dated December 29, 2021 No. 1424”.
As one of the ways to support the consumer market during martial law,
the government banned the export of such products as buckwheat, salt,
rye, and oats. Restrictions also apply to a number of mineral and chemical
fertilizers.
During the martial law, the National Bank of Ukraine introduced
a number of rules regarding settlements with transactions related to
foreign economic activity, in particular the establishment of deadlines of
90 calendar days for the relevant settlements, which is regulated by the
Resolution of the Board of the National Bank of Ukraine dated 24.02.2022
No. 18 “On the operation of the banking system during the introduction of
martial law”.
The dicult conditions in which Ukraine found itself contributed to a
signicant transformation of the national legislation in matters of regulation
520
Nila Tiurina, Ievgeniia Shelest, Illya Khadzhynov, Oksana Ivashchenko y Olha Harva
Regulatory policy of the foreign economic activity of the state
of foreign economic activity. The process of adapting domestic legislation
to new requirements is carried out on the basis of the introduction of a
structured system of legal regulation of the processes of foreign economic
activity, the development of the appropriate toolkit (normative framework,
compliance with the norms of international law and the conclusion of
intergovernmental agreements).
For the eective participation of Ukraine in the international market and
the implementation of foreign economic activities with the EU countries, it
is necessary to develop and bring into compliance the legal framework that
will contribute to the acceleration of the country’s integration into the EU.
The Covid-19 pandemic and hostilities have had a negative impact
on Ukraine’s economy and international cooperation. The slowdown in
production and the subsequent destruction of strategic enterprises and
infrastructure led to a sharp decline in the country’s socio-economic
development. Negative consequences are also observed in the eld of
human capital, as many professionals and young people have left abroad
in search of security. After the end of hostilities, not all citizens will return
to Ukraine, so the state must already take into account the shortage of
personnel in many professions.
Also, a negative consequence is the demographic crisis, which is caused
by the departure of the population from the country due to military
aggression, which aected the safety of working conditions, the level of
nancial security of labor, and the increase in the death rate of citizens
during hostilities. Such negative phenomena have a global character for
the country, which disincentivizes development and the possibility of the
country carrying out foreign economic activities in full.
1. Literature Review
Scientic research by leading scientists is devoted to the peculiarities of
the development of the economic potential of the regions and the country
as a whole, including aspects of foreign economic activity, namely: Areeva
(2021); Balatskyi (2021); Derhaliuk (2021); Havlovska (2019); Havlovska
(2020); Khrushch (2022); Kniaz (2021); Nazarova (2021); Nesterova
(2020); Popelo (2021); Prokopenko (2014); Rudnichenko (2020);
Rudnichenko (2021); Shkarlet (2020); Shymanska (2014); Solodovnik
(2021); Tulchynska (2021) and other.
Within the study (Rudnichenko et al., 2020) the authors developed
an economic and mathematical model for optimizing the interaction of
industrial enterprises with potential partners based on risk minimization.
Scientists are convinced of the practical value of the model, namely that