Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Publicación cientíca en formato digital
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185
Depósito legal pp 197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 74
2022
Recibido el 12/02/2022 Aceptado el 17/07/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 74 (2022), 178-194
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
State economic security as criminal law
protection object
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4074.09
Yuliya Andreevna Chernysheva *
Vlasta Leonidovna Goricheva **
Maksim Ivanovich Shepelev ***
Vladimir Nikolaevich Pishchulin ****
Abstract
The existence of any state is connected with socio-economic
and political-legal processes in the world. During the period of
global social transformations and major economic and political
reforms, Russia nds itself in a socio-political situation of
necessity to protect its interests, including economic ones.
Therefore, the legislator solves the most important task of legal
provision of economic security by criminal legal means. This text
aims to examine the theoretical foundations of economic security,
analyze the current state of the Russian economy with its level of functional
security and identify ways to improve security and criminal law provisions.
The methodology of this research is a set of methods, techniques and tools
of cognition used in research, both theoretical, empirical and applied. The
authors concluded that the main threat to the economic security of the
country is economic crimes, the ght against which is impossible without
criminal legislation. Therefore, the modernization of criminal policy should
be carried out by improving legislation and introducing a well-thought-
out system of law enforcement, which includes a similar valuation of all
subjects of economic relations.
Keywords: economic security; threats to economic security; criminal
policy; economic crimes; criminal law measures.
* PhD in Law. Associate Professor of the Department of Jurisprudence, Bunin Yelets State University,
Kommunarov st. 28, Yelets 399770, Russian Federation. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-
1874-5356
** PhD in Law. Associate Professor of the Department of Jurisprudence, Bunin Yelets State University,
Kommunarov st. 28, Yelets 399770, Russian Federation. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-
8223-4756
*** PhD of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management
named after N.G. Nechaev, Bunin Yelets State University, Kommunarov st. 28, Yelets 399770, Russian
Federation. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5770-7619
**** PhD of Pedagogical Sciences. Associate Professor of the Department of Economics and Management
named after N.G. Nechaev, Bunin Yelets State University, Kommunarov st. 28, Yelets 399770, Russian
Federation. ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6876-0477
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 74 (2022): 178-194
La seguridad económica del estado como objeto de
protección del derecho penal
Resumen
La existencia de cualquier Estado está conectada con los procesos
socioeconómicos y político-jurídicos del mundo. Durante el período de
transformaciones sociales globales y de importantes reformas económicas
y políticas, Rusia se encuentra en una situación sociopolítica de necesidad
para proteger sus intereses, incluidos los económicos. Por lo tanto, el
legislador resuelve la tarea más importante de provisión legal de seguridad
económica por medios jurídicos penales. Este texto tiene como objetivo
examinar los fundamentos teóricos de la seguridad económica, analizar el
estado actual de la economía rusa con su nivel de seguridad funcional e
identicar formas de mejorar la seguridad y las disposiciones del derecho
penal. La metodología de esta investigación es un conjunto de métodos,
técnicas y herramientas de cognición utilizadas en la investigación, tanto
teórica como empírica y aplicada. Los autores concluyeron que la principal
amenaza a la seguridad económica del país son los delitos económicos,
cuya lucha es imposible sin la legislación penal de por medio. Por lo tanto,
la modernización de la política criminal debe realizarse mejorando la
legislación e introduciendo un sistema bien pensado de aplicación de la ley,
que incluya una valoración similar de todos los sujetos de las relaciones
económicas.
Palabras clave: seguridad económica; amenazas a la seguridad
económica; política criminal; delitos económicos;
medidas de derecho penal.
Introduction
Economic security is an integral part of the economic system, an
important element in developing the national economy, enterprise, society,
etc. Economic security is the most important part of the national security
structure of the country (Drobot and Vartanova, 2019). In current conditions,
ensuring economic security is the main condition for sustainable socio-
economic development of the national economy. However, modern threats
to economic security are manifested at various levels of development of the
socio-political system of the state (Shaeva, 2019).
The problems of ensuring economic security have now become extremely
urgent. Economic security as a state of protection of the state from external
and internal threats needs legal support to guarantee and respect human
rights and freedoms and ensure the protection of the main institutions of
civil society and the state.
180
Yuliya Andreevna Chernysheva, Vlasta Leonidovna Goricheva, Maksim Ivanovich Shepelev y
Vladimir Nikolaevich Pishchulin
State economic security as criminal law protection object
The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is designed to protect
the most important public relations from the actual iniction or threat of
signicant harm to them by establishing a criminal law prohibition. The
accuracy and clarity of criminal law norms are an important guarantee of
their eective application and, as a result, ensure the implementation of the
principle of the inevitability of the responsibility of punishment (Muradov,
2010).
The main threat to the State’s economic security is its encroachments by
criminally illegal acts of an economic nature. Criminalization of these acts
was carried out in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (“Crimes
in the sphere of economics,” containing Chapters 21-23 (Articles 158-204)
with extensive use of the norms of economic legislation, although Russia’s
criminal policy in the economic sphere does not and has never had a
concept, plan, or document in which its principles and directions would be
brought together (Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, 1996).
Currently, at a very general level, a promising “economic” criminal policy
is considered only in the 2017-2025 Criminal Policy Roadmap (Dolinko,
2019a). The laws that toughen criminal liability for crimes in the economic
sphere are mainly related to criminalizing certain acts. It should be noted
a sharp increase in the activity of the state in the eld of the criminal legal
protection of economic activity since 2009. So, in 2001-2008, 9 laws were
amended to Chapter 22 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation,
then only in 2009 - 5 laws, for the period 2009-2011. 13 laws and 42 laws
for the period 2009-2020.
The analysis of the texts of the laws that made these changes to the
Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, and explanatory notes to them,
allows us to conclude that there are three main directions of reforming the
“economic” criminal legislation in the last two decades.
The rst direction is to reduce the risks of doing business related to
illegal criminal prosecution or excessive sanctions established by criminal
law that do not correspond to the public danger of the act.
The second direction is to strengthen the counteraction to acts that
infringe on the state’s nancial interests and tax crimes. Finally, it is
necessary to note the counteraction to the so-called “ight of capital.”
The third direction is a counteraction to new forms of illegal behavior
in economic activity. The direction is conditional – unlike the other two
directions and reforms within which are carried out in practice more or
less purposefully, the criminalization of new types of acts in the sphere of
economy is, for the most part, reactive and represents attempts to solve
acute problems in the economy or society radically.
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Vol. 40 Nº 74 (2022): 178-194
Based on this, we can conclude the chronic nature of most modern
problems of Russia’s “economic” criminal policy.
Currently, law enforcement practice needs to disclose the content
of the norms providing for the responsibility for economic crimes and
the development of scientically based methods for the identication,
disclosure, and investigation of crimes in economics.
The scientic novelty is determined by the fact that the work aims to
solve problems and contradictions caused by the need to introduce new
provisions of criminal legislation and form an integrated and systematic
approach to improving the activities of law enforcement agencies.
The study aims to consider the theoretical foundations of economic
security, the analysis of the current state of the Russian economy and the
level of security of its functioning, and identify ways to improve security
and the laws of its criminal law provision.
To achieve this goal, this study solves the following main tasks:
Consideration of the role and place of economic security in the
national security system of Russia;
Analysis of the main threats to economic security and criminogenically
signicant factors of their determination in modern conditions;
Substantiation of proposals for improving criminal law measures to
ensure the economic security of Russia.
1. Literature Review
Currently, the Russian Federation is seriously threatened by the
growing potential of organized crime, the ght against which is increasingly
becoming political. Organized crime penetrates all spheres of society, and
among its priorities is the economy. The development of a market economy
in our country provokes the growth of external and internal threats to
national economic security.
The relevance of the topic is dictated by the current global situation,
characterized by the impact of the economic crisis on the processes taking
place within the state since it is the economic basis of the development of
the state that is a priority: the development of the economy gives impetus
to the development of science, the social environment and other spheres of
society. At the present stage, economic security guarantees the country’s
independence implements an independent economic policy, and creates
conditions for stable development.
182
Yuliya Andreevna Chernysheva, Vlasta Leonidovna Goricheva, Maksim Ivanovich Shepelev y
Vladimir Nikolaevich Pishchulin
State economic security as criminal law protection object
Many works on studying economic security, threats, and means of
protection have been published in the scientic literature.
The research on this problem is devoted to the scientic works of such
modern authors as: N.V. Genrikh, V.I. Dolinko, V.M. Egorshin, V.M. Esipov,
E.S. Muradov, P.N. Panchenko, I.G. Ragozina, A.V. Syusyukin.
Genrikh (2002) “Criminological aspects of countering threats to Russia’s
economic security”. The author examines economic security in detail as a
criminological problem. He also provides criminological characteristics of
crime in economic activity.
Dolinko, in his work (2019a) “Ensuring the economic security of Russia
by criminal law measures,” examines the issues of ensuring the economic
security of the Russian Federation by criminal law measures.
Egorshin, in his study (2000) “Economic crime and security of modern
Russia (theoretical and criminological analysis),” analyzes the essence and
content of economic security in the national security system of the state and
the criminological content of threats to economic security. He also considers
economic security as the socio-economic basis of a right-wing state.
Esipov (2004) devoted his research to analyzing the current state of crime
in economics “Organizational and economic mechanism of countering the
criminal economy at the stage of market reforms.”
Muradov (2010) “Economic security as an object of criminal law
protection” in its article explores the concepts of “security,” “economic
security,” and “threat to economic security.”
Shlemko and Binko (2015) “Economic security: the essence and
directions of ensuring” explore the theoretical foundations of economic
security.
When working on this study, the works of the following authors were
studied on the economic security of the state as an object of criminal law
protection: Economic security of the individual in the system of economic
security of the state (Bank, 2020). The system of economic security of
territories of advanced development and assessment of their eective
impact on the level of economic security of regions (Mironova, 2021).
Economic security in the tax sphere in the system of ensuring the
economic security of the state (Goncharenko and Kutsenko, 2015).
Sources, types and factors of threats to economic security, the creation
of an economic security service (Musatayeva, 2015). Economic security
and competitiveness of the region as the most important component of
economic security (Makhanko and Shalaginova, 2014). Managing for the
future: the 1990s and beyond (Drucker, 1993). How money is managed:
the ends and means of monetary policy (Einzig, 1959). Economics in one
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Vol. 40 Nº 74 (2022): 178-194
lesson: the shortest and the surest way to understand basic economics
(Hazlitt, 1979).
2. Methodology
The methodology of scientic research is a set of methods, techniques,
tools, and other tools of cognition used in research at the theoretical,
empirical, and applied levels and credible information about the processes
and phenomena under consideration. The research methodology is based
on the scientic provisions of criminal law on the nature of crime and
criminality and their impact on the state of the country’s economic security.
Scientic research on this problem is carried out using the dialectical
method of cognition. The application of the dialectical method made it
possible to study the continuous development, qualitative changes, and
interrelationships of criminal law norms in the context of responsibility for
crimes aimed at undermining the country’s economic security.
The dialectical approach to analyzing an object is characterized by three
basic principles: development, a common connection, and contradiction. In
the context of this study, the principle of development nds its identication
in the emergence, formation, and appearance of the old basis of a new
quality of crimes in economics. The principle of the general connection is to
understand the essence of crime in the economic sphere.
This requires investigation of the external and internal connections of
the object of criminal law protection; to distinguish among their diverse
signicant, recurring connections. Finally, the principle of contradiction
orients us to analyze its main contradictions when realizing the essence of
the object of criminal law protection.
The regulatory framework of the study is the Decree of the President of
the Russian Federation and federal laws in the eld of economic activity.
The information base is statistical data.
3. Results
The need to criminalize crimes that undermine national security is
because the degree and nature of the public danger of these acts indicate
the impossibility of eectively countering them only by economic
measures provided for by nancial, business and banking legislation. This
is what forced the State to resort to criminal law response measures, the
positive eect of which, subject to compliance with all other principles of
criminalization (in particular, the principle of unreliability of prohibition)
184
Yuliya Andreevna Chernysheva, Vlasta Leonidovna Goricheva, Maksim Ivanovich Shepelev y
Vladimir Nikolaevich Pishchulin
State economic security as criminal law protection object
and the good work of law enforcement agencies, should signicantly exceed