Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
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Vol.40 N° 73
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2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca cn aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
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ti ga do res; es ti mu lar la in ves ti ga ción en es tas áreas del sa ber; y pro pi ciar la pre sen ta-
ción, dis cu sión y con fron ta ción de las ideas y avan ces cien tí fi cos con com pro mi so so cial.
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas apa re ce dos ve ces al o y pu bli ca tra ba jos ori gi na les con
avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
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nes Cien tí fi cas y Tec no ló gi cas Ve ne zo la nas del FO NA CIT, La tin dex.
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Co mi Edi tor
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Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 819-836
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Recibido el 14/04/2022 Aceptado el 03/05/2022
Representations of the
Russian Orthodox Church to the
European Organizations (2002-2021):
from religion to politics
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.47
Oleksandr Trygub *
Enache George-Eugen **
Oleg Bobina ***
Olga Kravchuk ****
Iryna Shapovalova *****
Abstract
The aim of the article is to reveal the importance of the
instruments of the Russian Orthodox Church in the European
space: the Representation of the Russian Orthodox Church in
the European institutions and the Representation of the Russian
Orthodox Church in the Council of Europe. The methodological basis of
the study is a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach that uses systemic,
civilizational, historical-chronological and structural-functional methods.
Everything leads to the conclusion that the activities of the missions are
designed to contribute to the achievement of the foreign policy objectives,
both religious and spiritual and State of the Russian Federation. By
interacting with foreign media and civil society institutions, the oces
of the Russian Orthodox Church promote a positive image of Russian
Orthodoxy and the idea of a “Russian world”, creating a more favorable
image of these ideas in the world for Russia’s foreign policy. In this way, we
see that the Orthodox Church has intensied its external activities in the
twenty-rst century. At the same time, it is often not only religious but also
political, attesting to the greater rapprochement of the “New Russia” with
* Doctor of History, Professor of the Department of History, V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National
University, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0610-1702
** Ph.D. in History, Professor of the Faculty of History, Philosophy and Theology „Dunărea de Jos”
University of Galați, Galați, Romania. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9389-993X
*** Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Sciences Admiral
Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-
0002-1920-8341
**** Ph.D. in Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Sciences
Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0001-7802-1934
***** Ph.D. in Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Social and Humanitarian
Sciences Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://
orcid.org/0000-0001-6781-7697
820
Oleksandr Trygub, Enache George-Eugen, Oleg Bobina, Olga Kravchuk y Iryna Shapovalova
Representations of the Russian Orthodox Church to the European Organizations (2002-2021):
from religion to politics
the Russian Orthodox Church, which continues to perform secular tasks on
the foreign policy front.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church; Russian Federation; religion and
politics; European Union; international organizations.
Representaciones de la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa en
organizaciones europeas (2002-2021): de la religión a la
política
Resumen
El objetivo del artículo es revelar la importancia de los instrumentos
de la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa en el espacio europeo: la Representación de la
Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa en las instituciones europeas y la Representación de
la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa en el Consejo de Europa. La base metodológica
del estudio es un enfoque interdisciplinario integral que utiliza métodos
sistémicos, civilizacionales, histórico-cronológicos y estructural-
funcionales. Todo permite concluir que las actividades de las misiones
están diseñadas para contribuir al logro de los objetivos de política exterior,
tanto religiosos como espirituales y estatales de la Federación de Rusia. Al
interactuar con medios extranjeros e instituciones de la sociedad civil, las
ocinas de la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa promueven una imagen positiva de
la ortodoxia rusa y la idea de un “mundo ruso”, creando una imagen más
favorable de estas ideas en el mundo para la política exterior de Rusia. De
esta manera, vemos que la Iglesia Ortodoxa ha intensicado sus actividades
externas en el siglo XXI. Al mismo tiempo, a menudo no solo es religioso
sino también político, lo que atestigua el mayor acercamiento de la “Nueva
Rusia” con la Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa, que continúa desempeñando tareas
seculares en el frente de la política exterior.
Palabras clave: Iglesia Ortodoxa Rusa; federación rusa; religión y
política; unión europea, organizaciones internacionales.
Introduction
Religious organizations are playing an increasingly active role in in the
political processes of the modern world. They become inuential participants
in international relations in a globalizing world, remaining sometimes in
the shadows, “behind the scenes” of events unfolding interstate or intrastate
relations and contradictions. The inuence of religious organizations on
821
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 819-836
the political destinies of the country, states and the entire world community
can be clearly traced, for example, in the activities of the Vatican or Islamic
institutions.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) also seeks to occupy its niche
in international relations. Obviously that the real activity of the Russian
Orthodox Church in the international arena is not limited to the Soviet
slogan “struggle for world peace” imposed on it. From now on, the Russian
Federation, as in former communist times, supports the Russian Orthodox
Church, which in turn supports Russia’s international prestige.
In the XXI century there is an increase in the interaction of the ROC and
the Russian Federation in various spheres of life of the country, not only
in the spiritual, but in the practical terms also. In March 2003, Patriarch
Aleksiy II at a meeting of the Collegium’ Ministry of Foreign Aairs of the
Russian Federation informed on the Russian Orthodox Church’s vision of
the Russian diplomacy strategic objectives, given the role the ROC assigns
to Russia in the international arena. According to the Russian Orthodox
Church, Russia should become one of the international poles of the world,
one of the decision-making centers. The Church, according to the Patriarch,
has its point of view on the most important issues of political life and openly
proclaims it. In turn, Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov stressed that
close contacts with the Russian Orthodox Church enrich the diplomatic
service with a broader vision of the country’s national interests.
The relevance of the chosen topic is facilitated by the fact, that it remains
poorly studied today. Some aspects of the issue were raised by Russian
scientists: Olga Tserpitskaya (2011), Petr Kasatkin (2010a; 2010b), Roman
Lunkin (2018; 2020), and Ukrainian scientist Oleksandr Trygub (2012;
2014), but there is no summary work. It should also be borne in mind that
the situation in the international arena and inside the Russian Orthodox
Church has changed signicantly over the last decade.
Thus, the place and role of the Russian Orthodox Church in international
relations is becoming very relevant today. Therefore, the authors aim
to reveal the importance of the ROC instruments in the European space
– the Representation of the Russian Orthodox Church to the European
Institutions and the Representation of the Russian Orthodox Church in
the Council of Europe (Representation of the Russian Orthodox Church in
Strasbourg).
1. Methodology of the research
The methodological basis of the study is a comprehensive interdisciplinary
approach. In the course of the research both general scientic theoretical
822
Oleksandr Trygub, Enache George-Eugen, Oleg Bobina, Olga Kravchuk y Iryna Shapovalova
Representations of the Russian Orthodox Church to the European Organizations (2002-2021):
from religion to politics
methods (systemic, civilizational) and special political science methods
(theory of political systems, structural-functional, comparative analysis)
were used.
In considering the conceptual foundations of cooperation between the
Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Federation, the author followed
a systematic approach, which claried the role and place of the Russian
Orthodox Church in the international arena, comprehensively reveal the
internal logic of the ROC’s international activity in the context of Russian
Federation’ foreign policy in a globalized environment.
In the study of political problems of international relations and global
development, which includes the research topic, the institutional approach
is of great importance. The use of the historical-chronological method in
the positivist key played an important role, as all events are revealed in a
logical sequence.
The use of these methodological tool made it possible to fully and
objectively solve this problem.
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. The Representation of the Russian Orthodox Church to the
European Institutions
The Representation of the Russian Orthodox Church to the European
Institutions (further – ‘Representation in EI’) was established on July
17, 2002 in Brussels with the blessing of Patriarch and the Holy Synod of
the ROC “taking into account a widening dialogue of the Russian Church
with European international organisations”. The primary purpose of this
decision was to enable the ROC to participate in discussions about the
future of Europe. Numerous theological, philosophical, ethical and social
issues also played an important role in the debate about the future EU
constitution. In addition, the mission planned to engage in ecumenical
cooperation with other Church’ organizations located in Brussels, as well as
to communicate with the public (Trygub, 2012).
The ocial message of Patriarch Aleksiy II of Moscow to the European
Commission President Romano Prodi states, that many members of the
Russian Orthodox Church live in the current EU countries, as well as in the
candidate countries. With the accession of Eastern European countries to
the EU, the Moscow Patriarchate hopes that the Russian Orthodox Church
will gain more weight and will be able to contribute to the creation of
European integration structures (Representation of the Russian Orthodox
Church to the EU in Brussels begins to work, 2002).