Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 15/04/2022 Aceptado el 14/06/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 655-670
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
The Criminal Law Aspect
of the Violation of Environmental
Law in the context of armed aggression
against Ukraine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.37
Nataliia Barabash *
Igor Paryzkyi **
Eduard Rasiuk ***
Bohdan Telefanko ****
Oleksii Humin *****
Abstract
The objective of the study was to analyze, in a comparative
legal framework, violations of environmental law in the context
of armed aggression against Ukraine. The research method was a
dialectical combination of the proven general and private scientic
methods of legal knowledge. They emphasize in the Research Results
that scientic advances can be used to solve the serious problems that
arise in the legal regulation of criminal liability for environmental crimes
in the context of armed aggression against Ukraine, as well as in general
processes aimed at improving the environmental situation as a whole. It is
concluded that the problems of criminal liability for environmental crimes
in the context of armed aggression against Ukraine are managed, as far as
doctrine is concerned, in the need to study the problems that currently exist
in this area, in order to develop eective means of combating environmental
crimes. In this regard, the optimization of the solution of environmental
protection problems as a result of aggression against our State is possible
on the basis of inter-State cooperation.
* Doctor of Philosophie Associal Professor at Departement of Sozial Law Ivan Franko National University
of Lwiw, Faculty of Law, Departement of Social Law 14 Sichovykh Striltsiv St., Lviv, 79000, Ukraine.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1520-8985
** Doctor of Science (PHD), Pro-rector Professor of Marketing, Economics, Management and
Administration National Academy of Management, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-
0001-6835-5930
*** Candidate of science of law Associate Professor, Professor Department of Criminology and criminal
enforcement law, National Academy of Internal Aairs 1, Solomianska Square, Kyiv, 03035, Ukraine.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4065-5266
**** Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Law Lviv National University
of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies C. Z. Grzycki, Lviv, st. Pekarska,50 Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4682-3622
***** Doctor in Law, Professor Head of the Department of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Educational
and Scientic Institute of Law, Psychology and Innovative Education, Lviv Polytechnic National
University, Lviv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8016-945X
656
Nataliia Barabash, Igor Paryzkyi, Eduard Rasiuk, Bohdan Telefanko y Oleksii Humin
The Criminal Law Aspect of the Violation of Environmental Law in the context of armed
aggression against Ukraine
Keywords: environmental threats; environmental law; environmental
crime; armed conict; criminal law in armed conicts.
El aspecto penal de la violación del derecho ambiental
en el contexto de la agresión armada contra Ucrania
Resumen
El objetivo del estudio fue analizar, en un marco jurídico comparativo,
las violaciones del derecho ambiental en el contexto de la agresión armada
contra Ucrania. El método de investigación fue una combinación dialéctica
de los métodos cientícos generales y privados probados del conocimiento
jurídico. Destacan en los Resultados de la investigación que los avances
cientícos pueden utilizarse para resolver los graves problemas que
surgen en la regulación jurídica de la responsabilidad penal por delitos
ambientales en el contexto de la agresión armada contra Ucrania, así como
en los procesos generales destinados a mejorar la situación ambiental en
su conjunto. Se concluye que, los problemas de la responsabilidad penal
por delitos medioambientales en el contexto de la agresión armada contra
Ucrania se gestionan, en lo concerniente a la doctrina, en la necesidad de
estudiar los problemas que existen actualmente en este ámbito, con el n de
desarrollar medios ecaces de lucha contra los delitos medioambientales. En
este sentido, la optimización de la solución de los problemas de protección
del medio ambiente como resultado de la agresión contra nuestro Estado es
posible sobre la base de la cooperación interestatal.
Palabras clave: amenazas ambientales; derecho ambiental; delito
ambiental; conicto armado; derecho penal en
conictos armados.
Introduction
The focus of criminology on crimes and harms committed by and against
humans has broadened over time (Brisman and South, 2019).
Normal human activities and their interaction with nature can be
disrupted in times of war. As is known, any military conict is determined
by the initial stage of its origin and the nal drawing up of the normative-
legal basis of the process of regulating the consequences of the conict.
In most wars of the 19th and 20th centuries the main cause of military
conicts was natural resources: oil, coal, gas, timber, diamonds, etc. Almost
657
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 655-670
all large-scale wars had environmental consequences. An eective way to
undermine the economic potential of the enemy and reduce his ghting
ability was to inuence elements of the biosphere or technogenic objects in
the course of military operations. As a consequence of the above, therefore,
we can armatively say that environmental oenses are an inherent feature
of war.
Practice shows that technical, political, economic, national, and other
conicts can lead to negative environmental consequences. For example,
military actions, blockades of communication routes, and other forms of
conicts related to the adoption of decisions that cause environmental
damage due to the direct destruction of environmental objects. At the same
time, inter-ethnic and other conicts distract from solving a number of
traditional environmental problems.
The authors analyzed the criminal law norms that enshrine responsibility
for environmental crimes in Ukraine in the context of armed aggression
against our state, as well as the analysis of criminal legislation and problems
of implementation of criminal responsibility for environmental crimes in
foreign countries.
1. Theoretical Framework or Literature Review
It should be noted the fact that so far there is no legal and academic
research in the eld of environmental law of Ukraine regarding violations
resulting from armed aggression against Ukraine. That is why in the sphere
of scientic interest there is a question of how the Ukrainian legislation
will solve the problems of preventing environmental crimes for the future
to protect the environment, as foreign experience could be used for the
development of domestic criminal legislation aimed at protecting the
environment.
The relevance of this study, given that the leadership of our state is
interested in the problems of protecting and improving the environment
arising from the ongoing armed aggression against Ukraine, and as a result
of which the people of Ukraine suer seriously, violates their fundamental
rights, including, and ecological.
An analysis of scholarly works on violations of environmental law during
armed conicts reveals a clear link between armed aggression against a state
and violations of environmental law. For example, Nixon (2018) examines
the consequences of environmental law violations and environmental
oenses themselves stemming from the Vietnam War, while Cusato (2018)
has chosen the same subject of study, but in another country, Kuwait, after
the end of that country’s war.
658
Nataliia Barabash, Igor Paryzkyi, Eduard Rasiuk, Bohdan Telefanko y Oleksii Humin
The Criminal Law Aspect of the Violation of Environmental Law in the context of armed
aggression against Ukraine
As for the relationship of political aspects and environmental law, for
this reason, the very concept of environmental security Kornieiev and
Melnyk, (2021) as stated by the authors includes a set of measures to ensure
a certain state of the natural object and state guarantees to ensure the safe
operation of human life.
Undoubtedly, a relevant and signicant factor of objective nature is
the practical impossibility of receiving and registering information about
environmental crimes from the territories not controlled by the Ukrainian
authorities (the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and certain territories of
Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts).
We note that members of the public, in particular, the International
Charitable Organization “Ecology-Law-Human”, make attempts to study
the consequences of the war in eastern Ukraine on the environment and
public health. However, we agree with the fair comments of Turlova (2017),
it does not aect the registration in the established procedural order of
environmental encroachments in the specied territories. Consequently,
the issue of criminal liability in the scientic circle of domestic scientists
remains little researched.
2. Methodology
The methodological basis of the study of the criminal-legal aspect of the
violation of environmental law in the context of armed aggression against
Ukraine was tested by general scientic and private methods of scientic
knowledge, in particular, the dialectical method, methods of formal logic
– analysis, and synthesis, comparison, description, classication, methods
of induction and deduction, systems, comparative legal and formal-legal
methods.
3. Results
Provision of criminal liability for environmental oenses and attribution
of their environmental consequences in the context of armed aggression
against Ukraine is due to such reasons as:
1. The ecological nature of the act. If we analyze military practice, it is
possible to separate a special distinctive tendency - the environment
is considered as a direct object of military inuence, changing
the goals and character of modern war (military conicts). The
distinction of the environmental component of oenses committed
during military conicts from others is that the implementation
of specially designed programs (operations) with the purpose
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 655-670
of total destruction or local destruction of the ecological system
in the territory of the enemy for the maximum facilitation of the
implementation of strategic or operational-tactical tasks.
2. The global nature of the manifestation. The consequences of
environmental oenses during armed conicts are extremely severe
and may aect the interests of several states.
3. The consequence of violations of environmental law during armed
conicts is an environmental disaster that threatens human
existence. Environmental catastrophe is usually understood as
natural disasters or disasters caused by processes of human activity,
which have a long-term (often irreversible) negative eect on the
environment and human beings, spreading over a fairly large
territory.
4. It is always an intentional act. Methods of waging environmental
warfare can be: the physical extermination of fauna and ora, the
destruction of the environment by various agents of biological,
chemical, or physical nature, provoking a man-made disaster
through the destruction of environmentally dangerous objects, the
impact on the biosphere (its elements), the occurrence of natural
disasters have a certain focus. Assessment of the methods of warfare
is determined by the possibility and availability of methods of
destruction and the tactics of their application.
Environmental oenses in a military conict are those that are used not
only by means specically designed to destroy the environment but also
through the use of weapons systems that originally had a dierent intended
purpose (weapons of mass destruction, conventional weapons, non-lethal
weapons, etc.).
The use of military means is complex, which increases the eectiveness
of their defeat on the environment. As an example, we can mention the fact
that the use of the “Grad” system (eld 122-mm multiple rocket launcher
BM-21) for ring in an armed conict leads to the release of hazardous
chemical substances - raw materials, semi-products of weapons, which
leads to an excess of their concentration in the atmosphere to a level which
may be equivalent to the use of chemical weapons.
Disasters of special danger usually occur as a result of ecological wars (or
as a consequence