Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 15/03/2022 Aceptado el 22/05/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 614-632
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Political and legal preconditions
for supervision and control over the
observance of factory law in Ukraine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.35
Halyna Lavryk *
Halyna Terela **
Viktoriia Orel ***
Abstract
The objective consists in the investigation of the mental,
domestic and cosmovisive requirements for the formation of
factory legislation and the institution of supervision and control
over its observance; to discover the ideological basis of the social
reform of intersubjective relations, the formation of ideas on the
content of the right to work in political and legal thought and, thus,
to be able to reveal the particularities of the organizational and
legal model of supervision and control in the imperial period. Taking into
account that legislation serves as an indicator of the legal materialization of
ideas and values, to determine the political and legal requirements for the
establishment of the institution of supervision and control of compliance
with factory legislation, an axiological approach, a set of general criteria and
special legal methods are used.It is concluded that the period initiated by
the bourgeois revolutions was accompanied by the search for an ideological
justication for the rapid changes and transformations in the development
of social relations in the eld of free labor. The factory inspections of the
Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires, created on the basis of the English
model, were characterized by the ability to monitor compliance with factory
legislation.
Keywords: supervision; control; factory legislation; factory inspections;
ideology.
* Doctor of Law, Professor Head for the Department of Law, Poltava University of Economics and Trade.
36014, 3 Kovalya Str., Poltava, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5331-4327
** Candidate of History Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor for the Department of Law
in Poltava University of Economics and Trade. 36014, 3 Kovalya Str., Poltava, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5102-7068
*** Senior teacher for the Department of Law in Poltava University of Economics and Trade. 36014, 3
KovalyaStr., Poltava, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1474-1614
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 614-632
Requisitos previos político-legales para la formación
de la institución de supervisión y control del
cumplimiento de la legislación fabril en Ucrania
Resumen
El objetivo consiste en la investigación de los requisitos mentales,
domésticos y cosmovisivos para la formación de la legislación fabril y la
institución de supervisión y control sobre su observancia; para descubrir
la base ideológica de la reforma social de las relaciones intersubjetivas,
la formación de ideas sobre el contenido del derecho al trabajo en el
pensamiento político y jurídico y, asi, poder revelar las particularidades
del modelo organizativo y legal de supervisión y control en el período
imperial. Tomando en cuenta que la legislación sirve de indicador de la
materialización jurídica de ideas y valores, para determinar los requisitos
políticos y legales para el establecimiento de la institución de supervisión
y control del cumplimiento de la legislación fabril, se utiliza un enfoque
axiológico, un conjunto de criterios generales y métodos legales especiales.
Se concluye que el período iniciado por las revoluciones burguesas, estuvo
acompañado de la búsqueda de una justicación ideológica para los rápidos
cambios y transformaciones en el desarrollo de las relaciones sociales en
el campo del trabajo libre. Las inspecciones de fábrica del imperio ruso y
austrohúngaro, creadas sobre la base del modelo inglés, se caracterizaron
por la capacidad de supervisar el cumplimiento de la legislación fabril.
Palabras clave: supervisión; control; legislación fabril; inspecciones de
fábrica; ideología.
Introduction
The implementation of the social function of the state, in particular,
the need for the latter to intervene in relations between employees and
employers to ensure social harmony as part of global peace remains relevant
and acute issue from the beginning of the free labor market. Political
powers, which are the expression of liberal ideology, minimize the role of
the state, focusing on the driving force of the free market and the freedom
of the individual from interfering in his personal life. Proponents of the
Social Democrats emphasize the need to maintain the decisive inuence of
the state on the sphere of wage labor.
The issue of delineating the limits of state intervention in labor
relations becomes especially relevant in connection with the need to
identify trends in the further development of labor legislation, creating an
optimal organizational and legal model of supervision and control over its
616
Halyna Lavryk, Halyna Terela y Viktoriia Orel
Political and legal preconditions for supervision and control over the observance of factory law
in Ukraine
observance. The current state of public relations development in Ukraine
requires proper regulatory and institutional support (i.e. promoting the
implementation, protection and defense) of labor rights.
The search for political and legal solutions to regulate the sphere of hired
labor, in which the lion’s share of the population is involved, necessitates
taking into account the historical experience of labor relations, addressing
the origins of their formation, which correlates with the analysis of factory
law.
The formation of supervision and control in the eld of hired labor
was accompanied by its organizational and legal design in the form of the
institute of factory inspection in a number of European countries. The
legal system of Ukraine, whose ethnic lands in the late nineteenth century
were part of the Russian (85 %) and Austro-Hungarian empires (15 %)
(Hrytsak), was at the stage of «legal centralization and neutralization of
conditions for the development of national law» (Miroshnichenko, 2012:
188). At the same time, legal customs and traditions have left their mark on
law enforcement practice in these lands.
Legal thought of scholars at that time developed, showing attention to
the justication of the law concepts, distinguishing between police law and
rule of law, social nature of law, serving as: “…a kind of key to understanding
the laws, nature and trends of law that do not die with changing socio-
economic formations and undergo transformational changes in the process
of statehood development” (Zhygalkin, 2016: 137).
That was a time associated with the formal consolidation of substantive
norms in the eld of wage labor regarding the protection of the most
vulnerable categories – minors, women or those who determined the
peculiarities of working time accompanied by procedural rules aimed at
ensuring compliance with factory law. There was a demonstration of general
civilizational trends that the factory legislation of each state was formed
under the inuence of a number of political, socio-economic, ideological
factors, which led to specics of normative and law enforcement activities.
It is dicult to disagree with the opinion of the famous professor
O. M. Bykov, who served in the factory inspection and was directly involved
in the development of labor bills under the Provisional Government of
Russia, that «… factory laws may be more than any other piece of law and
closely dependent on general economic and cultural conditions of the
state»(Bykov, 1909: 269).
Another researcher of factory law, jurist, public gure L. M. Nisselovich
emphasized:
To determine with greater or lesser accuracy the reasons that caused this or
that change in law; to nd out, as far as possible, the views and principles that
617
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 614-632
guided the legislature in this or that change: this is the task of the one who studies
the history of law (Nisselovich, 1883: XI-XII).
The ethnic Ukrainian lands became part of the Russian and Austro-
Hungarian empires in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The
aim is to explore both worldview mental and domestic preconditions for the
formation of factory law and the institution of supervision and control over
its observance, to clarify the ideological basis of social reform of bourgeois
relations, the formation of ideas about the content of the right to work in
contemporary political and legal thought, the peculiarities of organizational
and legal model of supervision and control in the imperial period.
1. Research methodology
The law serves as an indicator of the legal materialization of ideas,
values, ideologies that were dominant in society at a certain time and in their
peculiar intertwining in the communicative discourse of persons directly
involved in rule-making activities inuenced the formal consolidation
of legal norms. it is necessary to characterize the development of law in
the political and legal perspective from the standpoint of the axiological
approach.
Postulating the intersubjectivity of values, allowing to take into account
the bearers of the latter as an individual and society or humanity as a whole
(Gorobets, 2012) – axiological approach allows to consider the development
of law as part of legal reality, which is a reection of axiosphere and
normospheres in the aggregate of their unity and interaction. As Western
researcher E. Darian-Smith observes, «our conceptions of justice change
over time and they are linked to economic power, social values and moral
feelings that are not universal, apolitical or static» (Darian-Smith, cited:
Gryshchuk, 2019: 6).
The choice of methods was determined by the aim. During the study,
both general (dialectical) and general scientic (analysis and synthesis)
and special legal research methods (historical, teleological, formal and
legal) were used, based on the requirement of a comprehensive analysis of
political and legal phenomena.
The dialectical method made it possible to analyze the nature of the
change in ideology as a set of ideas and views, in particular, on the nature
of the social reform of bourgeois relations. The method of analysis and
synthesis provided an opportunity to critically comprehend and synthesize
scientic advances in the understanding of labor rights as an object of their
protection and defense.
618
Halyna Lavryk, Halyna Terela y Viktoriia Orel
Political and legal preconditions for supervision and control over the observance of factory law
in Ukraine
The historical method, thanks to the use of such techniques as
retrospective analysis, historical comparison allowed to outline the features
of factory law due to political and legal development, to determine the
causal patterns of the institute of factory inspection.
The teleological method allowed to determine the impact of direct
and indirect goals pursued by lawmakers in the development of factory
legislation. The application of the formal-legal method inherent in legal
research has allowed to focus on the subject and features of factory law in
general and the institution of supervision over its observance, in particular,
in terms of modern development of labor law.
2. Results and discussion
2.1. Ideological basis of social reform for bourgeois relations
The consequence of the bourgeois revolutions known as the «Spring
of the Peoples», which took place in a number of European countries in
1848-1849, including the Ukrainian lands of the Austrian Empire and the
Kingdom of Hungary (Bukovina, Galicia, Transcarpathian Ukraine), drew
attention to legal equality and freedom as principles that were the basis for
the formation of law rule on the basis of liberalism.
The Russian Empire embarked on the path of bourgeois development
after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, which began the transition from
class to class (civil) society in the preservation of autocracy and the political
regime of the police state, which left its mark on the nature of lawmaking
and law enforcement.
The police state, dating back to the period of enlightened absolutism in
Europe, was a kind of «secularized absolute monarchy based on theories of
natural law and social contract, according to which the monarch was given
power over his subjects for the common good» (Kholod, 2006a: 15). Such
a «common good» was understood as a public value, the responsibility for
the achievement of which, however, was assumed only by the state, while
acquiring a police character. Professor of Jurassic Imperial University
M. M. Belyavsky stated: «In the struggle for theories of socialism and
individualism, power and freedom, altruism and selshness, centralization
and decentralization, there are eorts of people to achieve the ideal of
public policy – the general welfare of citizens» (Belyavsky, 1904: 5).
The idealistic ethical trend that underlie the justication of the public
administration system in the police state is known as eudemonism,
dening «the basis of morality of man’s desire for happiness» (Dictionary
of Ukrainian language). The appointment of a police state was seen as
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 614-632
contributing to the common good. Variations in the meaning of the term
«good» Academic Explanatory Dictionary calls «good, happiness», «… all
that a person needs in life» (Dictionary of the Ukrainian language).
A characteristic feature of eudemonistic theories (H. von Wolf, I. G. von
Justi), which V. M. Hessen called the «political philosophy» of the police
state, was «the smallest regulation of what is» important «for the state
and everything is important» (Hessen, 1902: 5).
In 1871, the publicist R. I. Sementkovsky, in a preface to his translation
of Robert Mohl’s book, emphasized: «Life has too eloquently persuaded
governments to create a utopia» (Mohl, 1871: C. II).
As a reaction to the governance of the police state in the eighteenth
rst half of the nineteenth century, the teachings of liberal individualists
became widespread in its classical manifestation with the value justication
of freedom as independence from the state (Hessen, 1902).
Four groups of arguments have been put forward in favor of this view:
(1) philosophical, which postulates the recognition of law as inherent in
human nature (J. Locke). It followed that the task of the state can only
be the protection of human rights, because the state itself people create
in accordance with the terms of the social contract for the protection of
natural rights; (2) the economic argument of the doctrine of the Physiocrats,
developed by A. Smith and his followers, about the non-interference of the
state in economic life as an integral condition of technological progress.
The state was given the role of guardian of the safety of the production
process; (3) a political argument put forward by representatives of the
liberal school (B. Constant, E. Labule), the main message of which was the
understanding of freedom not so much as participation in power, but as
independence from power; (4) psychological argument (W. Von Humboldt,
J. W. Mill) with the denition of human activity as a necessary condition
for their development: «the smaller the state, the greater the individual»
(Hessen, 1902: 10-11).
Thus, in the views of proponents of liberalism, the police state gave way
to the rule of law in its liberal interpretation – «minimal» state with the
least optimal impact on economic relations (Yakovyuk, 2000).
Such ideological messages actualized the process for formation of
objective law with its potential possibilities of introducing a model of formal
denition of rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of citizens protected
by the state. The period initiated by the bourgeois-democratic revolutions
in Europe led to the consolidation of the inalienable (natural) rights of
the rst generation, including the right to life and equality before the law.
Thus, the idea of natural human rights, nurtured by early modern thinkers,
began to be embodied in legal acts that consolidated the achievements
620
Halyna Lavryk, Halyna Terela y Viktoriia Orel
Political and legal preconditions for supervision and control over the observance of factory law
in Ukraine
of revolutions, reecting the views characteristic of classical liberalism
(Malinov, n/y).
These are so-called negative rights, which were aimed at protecting
a person from any unwanted interference or restriction that violates his
freedom. The importance of the state was to protect security and law and
order, to establish «rules of the game» that would reconcile public and
private interests. This approach to the role of the «gendarme state» was
substantiated by representatives of the individualistic theory of the law rule
(W. Humboldt, I. Kant, J. G. Fichte) (Hessen, 1902: 11).
The very term «rule of law» was introduced into scientic usage by Robert
von Mohl in the 30’s of the XIX century (Palienko, 1906). Experience of state
and legal development of a particular country, embodying the worldview of
the role and importance of law for state and social constructio