Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 03/03/2022 Aceptado el 25/05/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
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avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 583-599
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Cyber security as the basis for the
national security of Ukraine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.33
Oleh Tarasenko *
Dmytro Mirkovets **
Artem Shevchyshen ***
Oleksandr Nahorniuk-Danyliuk ****
Yurii Yermakov *****
Abstract
The goal of the article is to identify cybersecurity issues as a
component of national security and suggest ways to solve them.
The topic of the research is the cyber security of Ukraine. In
the course of the research, the following methods were used:
dialectical method, formal and legal method, comparative-legal
method and scientic abstraction method. As a result, the legal
acts governing cybersecurity in Ukraine are analyzed, the cyber
security actors are determined and their functions are dened. Practical
implementation. There is a need to establish and implement an annual
plan for the implementation of the Cyber Security Strategy, which should
detail the actions to ensure cyber security, identify specic measures,
deadlines and responsible actors. It is concluded that, ways to improve the
cybersecurity system (as part of national security), which will update the
legal mechanisms of cybersecurity, create cybersecurity infrastructure at
the global level, establish eective interaction between cybersecurity actors
regardless of their departmental aliation and / or form of ownership,
including with the owners of critical infrastructure and non-state owned
information), are in their primary phase.
* Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of operative-search
activity of the National Academy of Internal Aairs (Kyiv, Ukraine). ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0002-3179-0143
** Candidate of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor Department public law
disciplines Private Higher Education Institution «University of Modern Knowledge» (Kyiv, Ukraine).
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2539-2824
*** Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure
of the National Academy of Internal Aairs (Kyiv, Ukraine). ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-
1342-6639
**** Candidate of Juridical Sciences, Lecturer of the Department of Civil and Legal Disciplines of the
National Academy of Internal Aairs (Kyiv, Ukraine). ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1511-
7140
***** Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor, Research Ocer of the Department of Scientic and
Legal Expertise and Law Drafting of the Educational and Research Institute of Public Law. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9400-0604
584
Oleh Tarasenko, Dmytro Mirkovets, Artem Shevchyshen, Oleksandr Nahorniuk-Danyliuk y
Yurii Yermakov
Cyber security as the basis for the national security of Ukraine
Keywords: cybersecurity; information and communication technologies;
national security; security strategy; cyberterrorism.
La ciberseguridad como base para la seguridad
nacional de Ucrania
Resumen
El objetivo del artículo es identicar los problemas de la seguridad
cibernética como un componente de la seguridad nacional y sugerir formas
de resolverlos. El tema de la investigación es la seguridad cibernética de
Ucrania. En el transcurso de la investigación se utilizaron los siguientes
métodos: método dialéctico, método formal y legal, método comparativo-
legal y método de abstracción cientíca. A modo de resultado, se analizan
los actos jurídicos que rigen la seguridad cibernética en Ucrania, se
determinan los actores de la seguridad cibernética y se denen sus funciones.
Implementación práctica. Existe la necesidad de establecer e implementar
un plan anual para la implementación de la Estrategia de Seguridad
Cibernética, que debe detallar las acciones para garantizar la seguridad
cibernética, identicar medidas especícas, plazos y actores responsables.
Se concluye que, las formas de mejorar el sistema de seguridad cibernética
(como parte de la seguridad nacional), que actualizará los mecanismos
legales de seguridad cibernética, crear infraestructura de seguridad
cibernética a nivel global, establecer una interacción efectiva entre los
actores de seguridad cibernética independientemente de su aliación
departamental y/o forma de propiedad, incluso con los propietarios de
infraestructura crítica y de información de propiedad no estatal), están en
su fase primaria.
Palabras clave: ciberseguridad; tecnologías de la información y la
comunicación; seguridad nacional; estrategia de
seguridad; ciberterrorismo.
Introduction
Information and communication technologies are one of the most
important factors inuencing the formation of priority areas of development
of the 21st century, which accounted for the achievements of mankind in
the practical implementation of new electronic information technologies.
There is a development of informatization processes related to expanding
the access to information resources and means of their production for all
categories of the population (Dovhan and Doronin, 2017).
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 73 (2021): 583-599
Although current global development trends are based on the widespread
introduction and application of information and communication
technologies, they simultaneously raise the issue of information security
and cyber security (especially for critical information infrastructure), due to
the increasing number and complexity of cyber incidents that enhance the
risks of natural and man-made nature (Order of the Cabinet of Ministers of
Ukraine No. 1009-r, 2017).
According to the materials of the International Forums in Davos (2018
–2019), the problem of cyber security is particularly acute, aecting virtually
all spheres of human life and activity (humanity suers losses of more than
$ 400 billion per year because of cyber-attacks) (Bykov et al., 2019).
The large-scale WannaCry virus attack, which took place on 12 – 13 May
2017, aected tens of thousands of computers around the world: for example,
in the UK, a number of medical facilities across the country were forced to
deny patients services even in emergencies due to failure of most computer
systems; in Spain, the Ministry of Energy and a telecommunications
company were attacked; in Germany, the computers of the railway
company’s control centers were infected, as a result of which the control
system failed; in France, car manufacturer Renault was hit by a massive
cyber-attack; Portugal Telecom, the largest telecommunications service
provider, was attacked in Portugal; in China, about 15% of educational
networks were aected; computer systems of shopping and oce centers,
networks of hospitals and gas stations, postal service, railway stations, as
well as government agencies were attacked (the probable damage caused
by the WannaCry virus in the rst four days exceeded $ 1 billion) (Dovhan
and Doronin, 2017).
This phenomenon clearly demonstrates how modern society depends on
the stable operation of information systems. Cyber security is considered as
a strategic problem at the State level, which aects all segments of society
(Dovhan and Doronin 2017).
That is, the formation of the information society gives new impetus
to the traditional threats to State security and creates fundamentally
new challenges for the national security system. In such conditions, the
search for new opportunities to ensure the security of the State becomes
especially important in view of the formation of a new eld of confrontation
– cyberspace.
Although Ukraine began entering the information space only in the early
1990s of the 20th centuries, but it led to a spike in computer crime resulted
in the development of appropriate legal instruments, adapting them to new
technologies. The activity of the world’s leading countries in cyberspace,
profound changes in attitudes to domestic information policy necessitates
the development of recommendations on short- and long-term priorities
for the transformation of the domestic cyber security sector.
586
Oleh Tarasenko, Dmytro Mirkovets, Artem Shevchyshen, Oleksandr Nahorniuk-Danyliuk y
Yurii Yermakov
Cyber security as the basis for the national security of Ukraine
The urgency of this problem is also determined by the rapid development
of a new type of illegal activity – transnational computer crimes, a sharp
increase in criminal computer professionalism, active migration of criminals
and organization of their actions, interethnic nature, which signicantly
complicated the criminogenic situation (Borysova, 2007).
The state and degree of threats in cyberspace have led to the State’s
response to strategic documents in the area of national security of Ukraine.
Challenges and threats to Ukraine’s national security in cyberspace resulted
in the creation of the Cyber Security Strategy of Ukraine, which was
implemented by the Order of the President of Ukraine of March 15, 2016
(Order of the President of Ukraine No. 96/2016, 2016). The incorporation
of its provisions led to the adoption of the Law of Ukraine “On the Basic
Principles of Cybersecurity in Ukraine” (Law of Ukraine 2163-VIII,
2017), which is a comprehensive special piece of legislation in the area of
cyber security.
Despite some ambiguities in the text of the statute and possible issues
with its practical application, it should be noted that the period of formation
of the national legislation in the area of cyber security has begun, and the
main act of special legislation initiating the relevant legislation has been
adopted (Dovhan and Doronin, 2017), as well as the corresponding body
of legislation, which constitutes direct legislation in the eld of cybers-
security, has been established.
However, the problem of their real implementation and coherence,
accelerating the incorporation of a set of international documents,
especially the EU and NATO ones (the number of which is growing rapidly),
coordination and interaction of major objects and actors of cyber security
remains relevant.
The analysis of the practical introduction of regulations in the area
of cybersecurity shows a number of problematic issues that prevent the
creation of an eective system of countering threats in cyberspace (such as
terminological uncertainty, lack of proper coordination of relevant agencies,
Ukraine’s dependence on foreign software and hardware, diculties with
stang the relevant structural units, etc.) (Dubov, 2010).
1. Methodology
The methodological basis for the research was laid by the system and
structural method and the method of ascension from the abstract to the
concrete. In combination with the method of analysis, they have become
an eective tool in the study of theoretical and methodological principles of
ensuring cyber security in Ukraine.
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 73 (2021): 583-599
The philosophical and ideological basis for the study is the dialectical
method of scientic knowledge of cyber security as a legal category in
contradictions and changes, which created an opportunity to assess the
historical development of this phenomenon, the establishment of the legal
institution and the formation of modern paradigm of cyber security.
With the help of the formal and legal method the concept of research
categories was substantiated, the conceptual categorical apparatus was
formed. The comparative and legal method was used in the study of domestic
legislation on legal support for cyber security in view of cyber threats. The
method of scientic abstraction allowed to propose substantiated measures
to combat threats in the area of cyber security.
2. Literature Review
The issues of counteraction to illegal acts in the area of high technology
are revealed in the works of a number of domestic and foreign scientists.
Sushko (2021) provided the denition of cyber security, which,
according to her opinion, is the practice of protecting networks, devices,
and applications from damage or theft. Besides, she emphasized that quit
often the concepts of “cybersecurity” and “information security” are applied
in parallel, but they are totally dierent: information security deals with the
means that protect personal data and cyber security is the activity aimed at
the protection of systems, programmes and electronic data from attacks.
For example, Delesline (2021) considered the dierence between IT
security and cyber security and comes to the conclusion the rst concept
is broader one: information technology focuses on the systems that store
and transmit digital information, while cyber security deals with protecting
electronic information stored within those systems.
Lopez (2022) provided an overview of the state of cyber security in the
UK for the period 2016 2021. She underlined the increasing role of Internet
technologies on the British economy, but at the same time stressed on the
growing number of cyber-attacks. That is why she proposed the measures
the UK government should undertake to prevent them and minimize their
adverse eect.
Part of the research has been undertaken precisely in the context of
the scientic rationale for the provision of cyber security; in particular,
Bakalinska and Bakalynskyi (2019) analyzed the prerequisites and features
of Ukrainian legislation in the area of cyber security, identied problems
and prospects for its further development in terms of assessing existing
dangers and threats, identied the areas for adapting domestic cyber
security legislation to the EU standards within the implementation of the
provisions of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU.