Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 26/04/2022 Aceptado el 15/06/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca cn aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
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ti ga do res; es ti mu lar la in ves ti ga ción en es tas áreas del sa ber; y pro pi ciar la pre sen ta-
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Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas apa re ce dos ve ces al o y pu bli ca tra ba jos ori gi na les con
avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
co, los cua les son so me ti dos a la con si de ra ción de ár bi tros ca li fi ca dos.
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Fabiola Tavares Duarte
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Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 570-582
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Political causes of the Ukrainian
revolution: theoretical aspects of the issue
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.32
Bahtiyar Idrisov *
Victor Hapotii **
Olha Minkova ***
Yuliia Makieshyna ****
Oleksandr Melnyk *****
Abstract
The purpose of the article was to conduct a theoretical analysis
of the political causes of the Ukrainian revolution. The methods
of analysis, synthesis and correlation used made it possible to
study political conditions and factors in relation to psychological,
economic and cultural factors. It was determined that the causes of
the revolution are a permanent political crisis, a conict between
the government and the opposition, the ineectiveness of the
actions of the institutions of government and the actions of the opposition;
together with changes in the socio-economic structure, the religiosication
of society and the inuence of political factors on the development of
abnormal social behaviors, among other factors. The research carried
out allows us to conclude that a relationship of stable factor «social
disorientation - social anomie - social cynicism - social madness» has been
formed in the Ukrainian public consciousness. Therefore, the algorithm for
the growth of revolutionary feelings under the inuence of socio-political
factors shows that this relationship has a tendency to repeat itself and is
characterized by a narrowing over time.
Keywords: political motives of the revolution; permanent crisis; political
phenomenon; society; history.
* Bogdan Khmelnytsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0003-4747-832X
** Bogdan Khmelnytsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0002-2604-8809
*** Bogdan Khmelnytsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0003-0367-2016
**** Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sport, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0002-2879-2930
***** Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0002-4516-0636
571
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 570-582
Razones políticas de la revolución ucraniana: Aspecto
teórico del estudio del tema
Resumen
El propósito del artículo fue realizar un análisis teórico de las causas
políticas de la revolución ucraniana. Los métodos de análisis, síntesis
y correlación utilizados permitieron estudiar las condiciones y factores
políticos en relación con factores psicológicos, económicos y culturales. Se
determinó que las causas de la revolución son una crisis política permanente,
un conicto entre el gobierno y la oposición, la inecacia de las acciones
de las instituciones de gobierno y las acciones de la oposición; junto a
cambios en la estructura socioeconómica, la religiosicación de la sociedad
y la inuencia de factores políticos en el desarrollo de comportamientos
sociales anormales, entre otros factores. La investigación realizada nos
permite concluir que una relación de factor estable “desorientación
social - anomia social - cinismo social - locura social” se ha formado en la
conciencia pública ucraniana. Por lo tanto, el algoritmo para el crecimiento
de sentimientos revolucionarios bajo la inuencia de factores sociopolíticos
muestra que esta relación tiene una tendencia a repetirse y se caracteriza
por un estrechamiento en el tiempo.
Palabras clave: motivos políticos de la revolución; crisis permanente;
fenómeno político; sociedad; historia.
Introduction
The scientic appeal of studying various aspects of revolution is
explained by the fact that there are no other phenomena in human history
where the interconnection of political and social processes and their change
mechanisms would appear on such a large scale and in a short period of
time.
The necessity to study the issues of radical changes in the state and
society is determined by the fact that “revolutions have become an inherent
fact of our existence and to understand them is to understand the future”
(Arendt, 1997: 24). Accordingly, the importance of analyzing the causes of
revolution is determined by their role in socio-political change and occupies
one of the main places in research.
Scientic interest in the study of the causes of cardinal action dates back
to the ancient period. Thus, in Book V of “ The Politics” the philosopher
Aristotle comes to the conclusion that the cause of public discontent is the
misunderstanding of citizens about equality and justice; accordingly, “since
they do not get their share in public administration, they rise up in revolt”
(Aristotle, 1983: 526).
572
Bahtiyar Idrisov, Victor Hapotii, Olha Minkova, Yuliia Makieshyna y Oleksandr Melnyk
Political causes of the Ukrainian revolution: theoretical aspects of the issue
Since the middle of the nineteenth century, when a wave of revolutionary
demonstrations swept across Europe, the study of the causes of revolution
became systematic. In this period, when political and social structure
fractures became most prominent, theories that would later become the
basis for practical revolutionary action began to take shape.
The need for research in the twentieth century after the revolution in
Russia and China, and then in other regions of the world, gave new impetus
to the study of revolutionary processes. According to the scientic demand,
the interest in the study of revolution was reected in the works of C.
Brinton, R. Darendor, T. Garr, T. Parsons, P. Sorokin and many other
foreign specialists. The content analysis of contemporary Ukrainian studies
shows that the works of A. Kolodia and S. Salnikova are devoted to the
issues of the revolution.
However, despite the great number of scientic publications, studying
the impact of political processes on the growth of radical public sentiment
are still quite relevant today. This is caused by specics of studying the
revolution and the diversity of concepts in determining its causes.
The problem solution is also complicated by the unclear concept content,
the variability of identifying the factors and development conditions, the
course of events, and nal results of the revolution. This complexity reects
the rather contradictory development of the post-Soviet countries, the Arab
East and Latin America. However, despite the great number of scientic
concepts of the revolution, the issues of determining its political causes and
factors remain insuciently studied. That is why this aspect of the problem
has become our research object
1. Objectives
The aim of the article is to determine the political reasons for the
actualization of revolutionary actions in the modern history of Ukrainian
society. The article takes as its starting point that the initial condition of
revolution is the imbalance of the socio-political system. The set goal is
realized by solving the following tasks: dening the political conditions
and factors of revolution; highlighting the relationship “ domestic state
policy - change in social consciousness; dening the growth algorithm of
revolutionary sentiments under the inuence of political factors.
2. Materials and methods.
The article applies a research model that emphasizes the political
component as a possible cause of revolution. The methodology and such
573
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 570-582
methods as analysis, synthesis and correlation applied in this model
allow us to consider political conditions and factors in interrelation with
psychological, economic, legal, demographic, cultural and other factors.
Also, such modeling research allows for a detailed and most accurately
dene the revolutionary “ cause-action” relationship.
3. Results and discussion
The revolutions at the beginning of the 20th century gave impetus to the
development of a new interest in the revolutionary phenomenon. American
scientists characterize the concept as follows: “Revolution is a broad group
of single-order concrete-historical phenomena in a relatively short period
of political transformation of society” (Goldstone, 2015: 32). According to
S. Huntington, revolution is:
A large-scale, rapid and violent growth of political activity beyond the existing
structure of political institutions.... The preconditions for revolution are, rst, the
inability of political institutions to be channels for new social forces to enter politics
and new elites to govern, and, second, the desire of social forces that are excluded
from politics to participate in it - this desire usually comes from the inherent
feeling of the group that it needs some symbolic or material gains, which can only
be achieved by making their own demands in the political sphere (Huntington,
2004: 229).
However, R. Darendor emphasizes the distinction between social and
political revolution:
The word revolution has long been used to denote two dierent forms of abrupt
transformation. ...The rst is deep transformations, changes in the core structures
of society, which of course take time. The second is rapid transformations, in
particular the change in power holders within days or weeks through explicit and
often violent action.Therefore, the rst can be called a social revolution and the
second a political one” (Darendorf, 1998: 26).
Such a polemic in the concept denition is caused not only by the
diversity of scientic concepts, but also by the fact that modern scientists
apply at least three ambiguous and sometimes contradictory scientic
research models, each of which applies its own methodology in the study
of the problem.
The rst model: “the study of the revolution’s natural conditions” was
applied by C. Brinton, T. Garr, H. Eckstein. The second model, in which the
cause is dened by T. Skocpol, J. Goldstone, J. Foran as a set of necessary
and sucient conditions and takes into account the role of all, even the
574
Bahtiyar Idrisov, Victor Hapotii, Olha Minkova, Yuliia Makieshyna y Oleksandr Melnyk
Political causes of the Ukrainian revolution: theoretical aspects of the issue
smallest factors. The third model identies one factor, which is dened as
the “cause of the revolution”. The following research approaches are used
in this model.
1. The study of various political factors, which have led scientists to
develop various theories of revolution. This approach was used in
the studies of V. Timashe, S. Huntington.
2. There are economic factors that determine the impact of economic
crises or political and economic modernization of the State on the
growth of revolutionary sentiments in society. This research focus is
noted in the works of G. White, I. Kramnick, and M. Olson.
3. The socio-psychological approach is characterized by the study of
various aspects of individual and social behavior. This approach was
used in the studies of C. Johnson, P. Sorokin.
Our article does not divide revolution into social and political, as
political crisis and conict are interconnected with social contradictions.
This relationship is described in some detail in the political crisis concepts
of J. Goldstone, state collapse and revolution of T. Scotchpol. Also, political
conicts and crises are interconnected phenomena: the conict may be the
beginning of a political crisis, and the crisis may be the basis of the conict.
Protracted conict can involve several political crises, and a set of socio-
political conicts can be the cause of a crisis.
We have identied a number of political conditions and factors that had
the greatest inuence on the development of the revolutionary situation in
Ukraine.
1. Socio-political crisis as a permanent state of society. An objective
condition for the creation and further continuation of the
revolutionary situation in Ukraine is the relationship system formed
after the collapse of the USSR, due to the change in the political
state structure. The changes took place primarily in the political and
economic sphere and were accompanied by a signicant drop in state
revenues.
Ukraine’s GDP in 1994 declined to 54.4% of the 1990 level, and 64%
of citizens were below the poverty line (Korablin, 2015). Later on, the
situation became more complicated: in 1999 Ukraine’s GDP was 40.8% of
the 1990 level (Ukrainian Statistics Committee, 2007). And, despite some
improvement in 2004, the situation did not improve much.
2. The conict between the government and the opposition. In
Ukrainian politics this conict was formed from the beginning and
was most acute at the end of L. Kuchma’s presidency in 2004 in the
confrontation between the pro-government presidential candidate
V. Yanukovich and the opposition V. Yushchenko. The government
575
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 570-582
proved unable to build relations with the opposition in dealing with
foreign policy issues and the ultimate goal of state development. Such
a confrontation was earlier characterized by N. Timashe: “If the knot
of contradictions between the government and the opposition within
the state has reached such proportions when symptoms of loss of
exibility become apparent, then a revolution will begin (Timashe,
1966: 370).
3. Ineciency of governing institutions actions. In 2013, which
was relatively stable in the socio-economic aspect, such political
factor as ineciency of governing institutions became the