Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 15/03/2022 Aceptado el 27/05/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 539-549
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Special characteristics of a person
who commits a crime associated with
the illegal transplantation of human
anatomical materials
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.30
Oleksandr Bidei *
Mykola Gelemei **
Oleksandr Kozachenko ***
Mykhailo Kuziuk ****
Abstract
This article aims to clarify the features of the forensic
characteristics of a person involved in the commission of crimes
related to the illegal transplantation of human anatomical
material. This research uses a comprehensive approach to study
the problems under analysis; systematic method and methods
of comparative law to analyses judicial practice and cases of illegal
transplantation of anatomical parts from various countries in order to
establish the moral and psychological characteristics of the oender and,
nally, to determine the possibility of using this information during the pre-
trial investigation of criminal proceedings of this category; statistical: to
collect and analyze empirical data on research practice in the transplantation
of anatomical materials to conrm the representativeness of the results.
It is concluded that, as a rule, the person who commits these crimes is
male from 25 to 50 years old, unmarried, works in a medical institution or
organization, has a complete higher education, as well as special medical
knowledge and skills. However, the geography of these criminal oenses
showed that the location for illegal transplantation is irrelevant.
Keywords: forensic characteristics; criminal; illegal transplantation;
human anatomical materials; pre-trial investigation.
* Candidate of Science in Law, Head of the Department of Law, Philip Orlik International Classical
University, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0895-6923
** Candidate of Science in Law, Associate Professor of the Public and Private Law Chair, Precarpathian
Department (Ivano-Frankivsk) of the National Academy of Internal Aairs, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2608-9117
*** Candidate of Science in Law, Senior Researcher, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management,
Professor of the Department of Security Management and Law Enforcement and Anti-Corruption
Activities, Volodymyr the Great Educational and Scientic Institute of Law, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1449-3670
**** Operating Chief of the Clinical Trials Unit of the Communal Nonprot Organization “Central Town
Clinical Hospital of Ivano-Frankivsk Town Council” ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2878-
9563
540
Oleksandr Bidei, Mykola Gelemei, Oleksandr Kozachenko y Mykhailo Kuziuk
Special characteristics of a person who commits a crime associated with the illegal transplantation
of human anatomical materials
Características especiales de una persona que comete
un delito asociado con el trasplante ilegal de materiales
anatómicos humanos
Resumen
Este artículo tiene como objetivo esclarecer los rasgos de las
características forenses de una persona involucrada en la comisión de
delitos relacionados con el trasplante ilegal de material anatómico humano.
Esta investigación utiliza un enfoque integral para estudiar los problemas
bajo análisis; método sistemático y métodos de derecho comparado
para analizar la práctica judicial y los casos de trasplante ilegal de partes
anatómicas de varios países con el n de establecer las características
morales y psicológicas del delincuente y, nalmente, determinar la
posibilidad de utilizar esta información durante la investigación previa al
juicio de los procesos penales de esta categoría; estadístico: para recopilar y
analizar datos empíricos sobre la práctica de investigación en el trasplante
de materiales anatómicos para conrmar la representatividad de los
resultados. Se concluye que, por regla general, la persona que comete estos
delitos es masculina de 25 a 50 años, soltera, trabaja en una institución
u organización médica, tiene una educación superior completa, así como
conocimientos y habilidades médicas especiales. Sin embargo, la geografía
de estos delitos penales mostró que la ubicación para el trasplante ilegal es
irrelevante.
Palabras clave: características forenses; delincuente; trasplante ilegal;
materiales anatómicos humanos; investigación previa
al juicio.
Introduction
The increasing need for transplantation as a method of treatment of
persons whose lives are in real danger, the diculty in obtaining material
from living donors, the problem of “maintaining the health of the living”, the
lack of evident dierences in the eectiveness of transplantation of organs
and tissues from living and non-living donors, all these factors foreground
the problem of donating transplant material from the dead.
Although in the case of organ transplantation from living persons
there are some positive aspects connected with the quality of the donated
organs, the development of better methods of removal and keeping organs
obtained from the corpse opens unlimited perspectives for transplantation
and guarantee health maintaining options for living persons who, as a
result of the organ removal and surgical intervention experience serious
541
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 539-549
diculties. Therefore, solving the problem by expanding the circle of living
donors, indications for such surgery, agitation of relatives of patients to
donate their organs for transplantation is unacceptable, because in this
situation saving lives and health maintaining is done by harming the health
of another person.
The way to obtain donor material from a corpse today is the most
adequate. Many people die every year in the world, their organs can be used
to save the lives and health of millions of patients in need. However, the
process of obtaining a donor organ from a corpse from a legal point of view
is not suciently resolved. In addition, the problem of crime control in the
eld of posthumous organ and tissue donation is aggravated.
Such criminal acts may take place by violating the statutory procedure
for the transplantation of human organs or tissues. In addition, they may
be related to: 1) illegal trade of human organs or tissues; 2) participation in
a transnational organization engaged in such activities; 3) the murder of a
donor before the use of his organs or tissues after death. The rst two types
of criminal acts fall under the signs of a crime under Part 1, 4, and 5 of Art.
143 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (Law of Ukraine, 2001).
However, in terms of this problem, they have special features. Thus,
the specics of violation of the statutory procedure for transplantation of
human organs or tissues in such cases may be in the form of non-compliance
with regulatory restrictions on obtaining consent for their use.
1. Methodology and methods
Conducting this research, we have taken into account the objectives of
the study, and therefore we have used both general and special scientic
methods. The rst group includes the following ones: logical method,
dialectical method, comparative method, statistical method, and systems
analysis method.
The group of special scientic methods includes survey methods (in the
form of an anonymous survey conducted in the second quarter of 2021 and
covered 65 investigators) and expert assessments, testing, experimentation,
method of generalizing indicators, and study and analysis of forensic
documents. The main criteria for choosing the empirical material were the
purpose of the study, the resonance of the studied problem in the society,
and the quantitative level of accumulated facts in this sphere.
The used general scientic methods have enabled us to conduct a
multifaceted study of the forensic characteristics of the oender. The
comparative method, in particular, has allowed analyzing cases of the illegal
transplantation of the anatomical parts in dierent countries to identify
542
Oleksandr Bidei, Mykola Gelemei, Oleksandr Kozachenko y Mykhailo Kuziuk
Special characteristics of a person who commits a crime associated with the illegal transplantation
of human anatomical materials
typical social, demographic, moral, and psychological characteristics of
the oender and to establish the possibility to use them in the pre-trial
investigation of criminal proceedings of this category.
Survey methods have been used to get to know the situation with criminal
oenses in the eld of illegal transplantation in Ukraine and a method of
generalizing indicators has been used to establish quantitative data on
the state of the investigative practice connected with the transplantation
of donor organs. Some forensic characteristics of a person who commits
criminal oenses in the eld of illegal transplantation have been found
out with the help of expert assessments method, testing, experiments, and
study and analysis of forensic documents.
The analysis of the obtained data has allowed establishing the norms of
development and interrelation of the illegal transplantology determinants
in Ukraine, as well as to single out quantitative and qualitative indicators
of the characteristics of a criminal, conrming the representativeness of the
results.
2. Results of the research
During the pre-trial investigation of a criminal oense, the identity
of the oender or the identity of the crime victim is a key element of the
forensic depiction. The oender identity is studied in various sciences,
such as criminal law, criminal procedure, criminology, forensic science, etc.
It is dicult to overestimate the importance of studying the identity of the
oender for the science of criminology.
The study of forensic features of certain categories of criminals allows to
development of typical models of oenders, so this knowledge will facilitate
the process of identifying and nding a criminal, studying the personality
of an accused, choosing the most eective tactics and methods of pre-trial
investigation, identifying causes and conditions.
Today it is impossible to achieve a high quality of crime investigation
without the use of knowledge from various elds of science and technology
in the process of its implementation (Ruvin, 2019). The urgent task of
forensic science today is the need to achieve a state in which a set of tools
and methods of crime investigation, in conjunction with the provisions of
the science of criminal procedure, would be the only legal mechanism that
can eectively ensure the solution of criminal proceedings in article 2 of the
Code of Criminal Procedure (Law of Ukraine, 2019).
In the forensic literature, there are signicant dierences in opinion
about the structure and content of the personality of the oender as
a central element of forensic characteristics. Based on the analysis of
543
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 539-549
existing points of view (Belkin, 2000; Kudriavtsev, 2011; Sierhieiev, 1971;
Matusovskiy, 1999), etc.) on this issue concerning crimes such as tracking
in minors, illegal adoption and substitution of children, we introduce the
most acceptable, in our opinion, the structure of the forensic characteristics
of the oender, consisting of the following items:
1) social-demographic, legal and moral-psychological characteristics,
and properties;
2) natural connections with other elements of the forensic characteristics
of a certain criminal oense.
Thus, the elements of social-demographic nature include the following:
gender, age, education, profession or occupation, marital status, place of
residence, social origin, social role in social-political life, civil relations,
production, family, and household sphere. In turn, the indicators of
moral and psychological nature include psychological peculiarities and
characteristics (level of mental development and intelligence, abilities,
skills and abilities, emotionality, temperament, volitional qualities) and
moral qualities (interests and needs, values, attitudes to various social and
moral values, capabilities and habits).
Under the signs that characterize the degree of legal awareness of the
oender, it is accepted to understand his/her attitude to the law, legal
behavior in the norm or pathology, etc. It is important to conrm the
presence or absence of facts of past anti-social or illegal behavior (record of
past administrative oenses, detention, criminal conviction).
According to the stated above, we can judge the predisposition of
the individual to commit criminal oenses, alone or in a group, and
about the motivation of their anti-social behavior. The act of buying and
selling anatomical transplantation involves the presence of at least two
perpetrators, the seller, and the buyer, as well as the recipients who receive
them for themselves and the donors who have agreed to give the organ or
tissue for transplantation for a reward.
However, as noted by Kozachenko O.I., an interesting experience in
resolving the issue of informers has been gained in Spain, where there are
no legal norms that would regulate or at least provide the possibility of using
informers during illegal transplantation (Hribov and Kozachenko, 2019).
In this context, it should be noted that illegal transplantation can be
performed only by a transplant surgeon with the use of appropriate special
equipment and strict rules of transportation. Such specialists are divided
into the following categories: 1) doctors who have licenses and they operate
because they have a strong need of nancial resources; 2) doctors who have
a license and have the funds, but participate in an illegal operation, because
transplantation is a hobby in life, but this type of surgeons is a very rare
544
Oleksandr Bidei, Mykola Gelemei, Oleksandr Kozachenko y Mykhailo Kuziuk
Special characteristics of a person who commits a crime associated with the illegal transplantation
of human anatomical materials
phenomenon; 3) a doctor, from whom a license has been taken away for
another type of oense; 4) a nal year student who, for known or unknown
reasons, has not received a diploma or certicate. The second case is when
a certied doctor could not nd a job according to the diploma or just has
diculty getting a job (Vilks, 2005).
Organized crime groups are diversifying their criminal activities and
therefore have the opportunity to respond quickly to the situation, without
forgetting to make a prot in new markets and detect new illegal sources,
which in the future give them huge prots and is not associated with a high
risk of detecting criminal activity.
That is why the illicit tracking of human organs and tissues is very
attractive and protable, because of high demand and a constant shortage
of supply, as organs can be taken from living or non-living without consent
of relatives or can be abducted from the morgue under the guise of legal
medical activity.
Today, the Unied Register of Judgments contains only one justiable
sentence concerning illegal transplantation (Judicial bodies of Ukraine,
2012). Thus, according to the verdict of the Ivano-Frankivsk Town Court
of Ivano-Frankivsk region from January 20, 2014, it is stated that in the
actions of the accused PERSON_7, PERSON_8, PERSON_9, PERSON_10,
PERSON_11 there is no corpus delicti provided for in parts one and ve
of Art. 143 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, as the latter did not perform
transplantation, which as a special method of treatment is to transplant
a recipient of an organ or other anatomical material taken from a person
(donor-corpse), but removed anatomical materials for further manufacture
of bioimplants.
The removed tissues from the dead were collected all over Ukraine,
sent to Germany, and ready-made bioimplants were received from there.
Relatives of the deceased were asked if they agreed to remove cartilage
or bone elements when dissecting the corpse. Relatives of the dead were
promised quick and free autopsy procedures so that they would not oppose
the removal of tissues. There was no specic package of documents for
these seizures. The forensic experts who performed these procedures do
not consider themselves guilty. It is said that the discrepancy could only be
in the technical non-compliance with the law.
However, in relation to the actions of the accused PERSON_7,
PERSON_8, PERSON_9, PERSON_10, PERSON_11 incriminated in the
indictment, which were expressed in the fact that the latter by deception
selected consent to take anatomical formations, tissues, components and
fragments of victims, without informing them of the possible number of
anatomical formations that will be removed, taking the consent of persons
who do not belong to the category of close relatives of the deceased and other