Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 06/04/2022 Aceptado el 20/06/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca cn aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
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ción, dis cu sión y con fron ta ción de las ideas y avan ces cien tí fi cos con com pro mi so so cial.
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas apa re ce dos ve ces al o y pu bli ca tra ba jos ori gi na les con
avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
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Eduviges Morales Villalobos
Fabiola Tavares Duarte
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Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 403-416
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Procedural and organizational and
tactical features of the search
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.21
Igor Gorbanov *
Olena Marchenko **
Dmytro Lisnichenko ***
Vadym Piaskovskyi ****
Liliia Matiiek *****
Abstract
In the scientic article on the basis of the analysis of the
current legislation and points of view of scientist’s procedural
and organizational and tactical features of carrying out search are
investigated, essence and maintenance of activity of participants
of the specied investigative (search) action is found out. A
methodological system is used, which includes the following levels:
philosophical, general scientic and special scientic. Emphasis
is placed on maintaining a balance between the tasks of protecting the
rights of the individual during investigative (search) actions in the home or
other property of the person and the eective ght against crime. Based on
the analysis of procedural legislation and scientic literature, the rights and
responsibilities of the suspect and other participants in the investigative
(search) action are summarized. Emphasis is placed on increasing the
importance of the investigator in providing procedural guarantees to the
person during the search, as well as on improving the tactics of the specied
investigative (search) action. Relevant proposals have been submitted to the
criminal procedure legislation of Ukraine and to the tactics of conducting
a search.
Keywords: investigation; criminal proceeding; investigative (search)
actions; evidence; search.
* Candidate of legal sciences, Associate Professor, dekan of the faculty of training specialists for pre-trial
investigation bodies, Odessa State University of Internal Aairs, Odessa, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://
orcid.org/0000-0002-0100-1107
** Candidate of legal sciences, Associate Professor of Criminal Procedure, Odesa State University of
Internal Aairs, Odessa, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5258-0647
*** Candidate of legal sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Criminal Procedure, Odesa State
University of Internal Aairs, Odessa, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6562-6651
**** Ph. D in Law, Associate Professor, Professor of Department of Criminalistics and Forensic Medicine of
National Academy of internal Aairs, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7954-
1018
***** Prosecutor of the Department of Procedural Guidance in Criminal Proceedings of Investigators of
the Territorial Department of the State Bureau of Investigation of the Ternopil Regional Prosecutor's
Oce, Ternopil, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1277-8894
404
Igor Gorbanov, Olena Marchenko, Dmytro Lisnichenko, Vadym Piaskovskyi y Liliia Matiiek
Procedural and organizational and tactical features of the search
Características procedimentales y organizativas y
tácticas de la búsqueda
Resumen
En el artículo sobre la base del análisis de la legislación actual y
los puntos de vista de los cientícos, se investigan las características
procesales, organizativas y tácticas de la realización de la búsqueda; se
encuentra la esencia y el mantenimiento de la actividad de los participantes
de la acción (búsqueda) especicada de investigación. Se utiliza un sistema
metodológico que comprende los siguientes niveles: losóco, cientíco
general y cientíco especial. Se hace hincapié en mantener un equilibrio
entre las tareas de protección de los derechos de la persona durante las
acciones de investigación (cateo) en el hogar u otros bienes de la persona y la
lucha ecaz contra el delito. Con base en el análisis de la legislación procesal
y la literatura cientíca, se resumen los derechos y responsabilidades del
sospechoso y otros participantes en la acción de investigación (búsqueda).
En las conclsuiones del caso, se hace hincapié en aumentar la importancia
del investigador para brindar garantías procesales a la persona durante
la búsqueda, así como en mejorar las tácticas de la acción investigativa
(búsqueda) especicada. Se han presentado propuestas pertinentes a la
legislación de procedimiento penal de Ucrania sobre las tácticas de realizar
un registro.
Palabras clave: investigación; proceso penal; acciones de investigación
(cateo); prueba; registro.
Introduction
Of particular importance in criminal proceedings are investigative
(search) actions that may be carried out in the home or other property of a
person, as their conduct is always associated with restriction of constitutional
rights to inviolability of housing or other property, privacy, inviolability of
property rights. It is during their implementation that the state must create
the necessary conditions for the fullest possible realization of constitutional
rights, no one should interfere in the eld of human rights, except in cases
expressly provided by law.
One of the important procedural means of obtaining evidence is a search,
the procedure for which is determined by Art. Art. 234 236 of the Criminal
Procedure Code of Ukraine. The essence of this investigative (search) action
is to forcibly inspect housing, other property of a person, individual citizens
in order to nd and seize objects relevant to criminal proceedings, as well as
to establish the location of wanted persons and their detention.
405
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 403-416
The main dierence between a search and other investigative (search)
actions is its coercive and investigative nature (Shepitko, 2007). First of
all, it is about the application of criminal procedural coercion, i.e., the
set of responsibilities of the participants in criminal proceedings and the
implementation of the tasks of the judiciary. The investigator, regardless of
the consent of the searched person, will conduct an inspection of the premises
and things belonging to him (Byshevets, 2015). The admissibility of such
measures is determined only by a reasoned court decision (Constitution
of Ukraine, 1996). The law stipulates that no one has the right to enter a
person’s home or other property for any purpose. This can happen only
with the voluntary consent of the person who owns them, or on the basis of
the decision of the investigating judge, except in urgent cases provided for
in Art. 30 of the Constitution of Ukraine (Constitution of Ukraine, 1996),
parts 1, 3 of Art. 233 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine (Criminal
Procedure Code of Ukraine, 2012).
In law enforcement practice, there are numerous examples of non-
performance or improper performance of duties by authorized and other
professional participants in criminal proceedings during this investigative
(search) action, which negatively aects the rights and legitimate interests
of other participants in criminal proceedings, achieving each criminal
proceeding. Some violations and omissions are the result of imperfect
legal regulation of the search procedure, others incorrect (conscious or
unintentional) interpretation of legal provisions by authorized subjects of
criminal proceedings, there are many cases of choosing the wrong tactics.
These aspects of procedural and organizational and tactical nature actualize
their research.
1. Methodology of the study
The methodological basis of the article consists of general and special
methods of scientic knowledge, the use of which is determined by the
purpose, object and subject of research (Vasylevych et al., 2021). General
scientic methods are presented in the work mainly by methods of formal
and dialectical logic (analysis and synthesis, methods of induction and
deduction, ascent from concrete to abstract and from abstract to concrete,
system-structural method and others). The dialectical method provided
clarication of the essence and content of the search in the system of
investigative (search) actions, rights and responsibilities of its participants.
The formal-logical method was used in determining the basic legal
concepts and categories that make up the content of a scientic article, to
interpret the concepts of «commonwealth», «housing», «tactics», to identify
problems that arise during the search, and develop ways to solution. With
406
Igor Gorbanov, Olena Marchenko, Dmytro Lisnichenko, Vadym Piaskovskyi y Liliia Matiiek
Procedural and organizational and tactical features of the search
the help of system-structural, formal-dogmatic and hermeneutic methods
the analysis of norms of the current criminal procedural legislation and
practice of its application, interpretation of provisions of the corresponding
normative-legal acts and materials of judicial practice is carried out. The
method of theoretical and legal modeling allowed to substantiate the
proposals aimed at improving the procedural order and tactics of the search.
2. Analysis of recent research
Various aspects of the researched issues in the criminal process are
the subject of scientic works of criminologists and proceduralists of the
modern period (Klymchuk, 2021; Ilyuk, 2020; Dyakov, 2016; Budzievsky,
2013; Dekhtyar, 2014; Saltevsky, 2006). Despite the signicant amount of
research devoted to the search, many issues related to the conduct of this
investigative (search) action remain controversial or partially resolved.
These include: the procedural impossibility of conducting a search at
the initial stage of the investigation in the absence of sucient information
about the identity of the searched person; identication of things and
documents that need to be removed; tactics of simultaneous searches in
one criminal proceeding, etc.
The purpose of the article is to study the criminal procedural status
of persons involved in the search, highlight the features of tactical and
regulatory nature to ensure the constitutional rights of participants in this
investigative (investigative) action, the admissibility of their restrictions,
identify gaps in legislation that require doctrinal analysis and regulatory
settlement.
3. Results and discussion
The main purpose of the search is to identify and obtain documents and
items relevant to criminal proceedings. Thus, in accordance with Part 1 of
Art. 234 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine search is conducted
in order to identify and record information about the circumstances of a
criminal oense, nding a weapon of criminal oense or property obtained
as a result of its commission, as well as establishing the location of wanted
persons» (Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, 2012).
We share the view of some scholars on the need to improve the legal
regulation of the search by expanding the purpose of its search nding
other items and documents relevant to criminal proceedings or securing a
civil lawsuit (Shevchishen, 2018). After all, this is the goal of the investigator
in many cases.
407
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 403-416
Among the ocials authorized to conduct investigative (search)
actions in the home, the exclusive role belongs to the investigator. He is a
representative of the state and a person who is endowed with state powers,
is responsible for the legality and timeliness of the investigative (search)
action. During the pre-trial investigation, all investigative (search) actions
are performed by the investigator in charge of the relevant materials of the
pre-trial investigation.
In particular, in Art. 236 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine refers
to the exclusive right of the investigator and prosecutor to execute a decision
on a permit to search the home or other property of a person (Komarnytska,
2016). The Supreme Court in its decision in case 466/896/17 of 29
January 2019 noted that the Criminal Procedure Code clearly denes the
range of persons entitled to be present during the search, and also clearly
indicates that the search is authorized to be conducted exclusively by an
investigator or prosecutor who has been granted such a right by a court
decision.
If the search is carried out by persons other than the investigator or the
prosecutor, these actions should be considered a signicant violation of the
conditions of the search, the results of such a search, in accordance with the
requirements of Art. Art. 86, 87 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine,
cannot be used during the adoption of procedural decisions, and the court
cannot refer to them as evidence during the adoption of a conviction (case
№ 466/896/17 of January 29, 2019).
In practice, there are often cases in which the decision of the investigating
judge on the permission to search the home or other property of the person
indicates the name of the investigator or prosecutor to conduct it. However,
the investigator or prosecutor is later joined by a group of self-proclaimed
police operatives, joined by a group of prosecutors, masked special forces
and machine guns not mentioned in the ruling. What can a person do in
such circumstances? Next to nothing. While the investigator reads the
decision to the person or gives it to him to get acquainted with himself, the
search has already begun.
Often, the person who gives the decision for review is not the investigator
specied in the decision, but is only the investigator in the established
investigative task force. In this case, in our opinion, the person has the
right to request a decision to establish an investigative task force and check
whether the decision states the name of the investigator. At the same time,
people who are not specied in the resolution are already in the person’s
home or other property. Thus, in practice, the requirements of Part 1 of Art.
236 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine are often not enforced.
There are cases when an investigator arrives for the purpose of a search,
whose name is not specied in the decision of the investigating judge,
408 Igor Gorbanov, Olena Marchenko, Dmytro Lisnichenko, Vadym Piaskovskyi y Liliia Matiiek
Procedural and organizational and tactical features of the search
and presents a decision to establish an investigative task force in which
he appears, but this decision does not contain any initial data, ie may be
printed in an unknown place, and the decision itself is forged. Given the
current criminogenic situation in the country, any unknown persons may
enter the apartment, who may later kill the owner or cause bodily harm or
illegally deprive him of his property.
One of the main participants in the criminal proceedings, who may
be invited to conduct an investigative (search) action in the home, is the
suspect. In Part 1 of Art. 42 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine
denes a list of grounds for recognizing a person as a suspect, which is
exhaustive.
Thus, the suspect has the right to conduct the investigation of the
investigating judge’s decision on permission to conduct it, to check
the proper certication of the decision, the validity of the decision, the
correctness of the address, owner (owner) of housing or other property and
receive a copy; to check the IDs of law enforcement ocers who arrived to
conduct an investigative (search) action; require information about other
persons involved in its implementation.
Receive legal assistance from a lawyer; to ensure the safety of their lives
and health, respect and dignity; demand the replacement of witnesses in
case of their interest in the results of criminal proceedings; to use the native
language, to receive copies of procedural documents in the native or other
language of the person, and if necessary to use the services of an interpreter;
voluntarily give out things that are wanted; refuse to answer questions; give
explanations or refuse to give them at any time; ask questions, express their
suggestions, comments and objections to the search procedure, which are
recorded in the minutes; unimpededly record the conduct of investigative
(search) action with the help of video (in compliance with the law).
To appeal against decisions, actions or inaction of the investigator,
prosecutor; to declare petitions and objections; to get acquainted with the
protocol of the search, to demand inclusion in the protocol of all remarks
concerning violation of norms of the current legislation during its carrying
out; receive a second copy of the search report together with a description
of the seized documents and temporarily seized items attached to it; to
demand measures to prevent the announcement of the circumstances of
his private life revealed during the search; to ensure the safety of property
in housing or other property, and the inability of third parties to access it.
During the search of the suspect’s home, his responsibilities to ensure the
procedural order of the relevant action and the achievement of its purpose
by the investigator and prosecutor are also specic. The analysis of the
legislation allowed to single out the following responsibilities of the suspect
during the search of his home: if there is a request of the investigator, the