Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 15/04/2022 Aceptado el 15/06/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
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avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
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cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 364-376
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Combating sports corruption: an
analysis of international regulations
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.19
Olha Bondarenko *
Maryna Utkina **
Oleg Reznik ***
Petro Malanchuk ****
Vitalii Yurakh *****
Abstract
Today, sport is one of the most developed and highly protable
industries. According to various sources, the annual revenue of
industry participants is estimated at at least $145 billion. The
article analyzes the relevant international anti-corruption legal
acts. We would like to emphasize that the adoption of these
documents and the ratication of most of them is an important
step in the ght against corruption in sport. At the same time,
most of these international standards are aimed at combating corruption,
that is, they oer active and punitive measures to combat it. Instead, the
authors insist on the priority of preventive measures against corruption.
The author’s classied approach to measures to combat corruption in
sport is proposed. It is concluded that the rst step should be to combat
corruption in international sports organizations. The eectiveness of anti-
corruption measures in this area depends mainly on the transparency of
their activities. Another area of corruption in sport is determined to be
grassroots corruption. The oldest form of corrupt sport is that which arises
spontaneously during competitions between two participants or two teams.
Keywords: sports corruption; criminal oences; counterattack to
corruption; corporate culture; international conventions.
* Department of Criminal Legal Disciplines and Procedure, Sumy State University, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2288-1393
** Department of Criminal Legal Disciplines and Procedure, Sumy State University, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3801-3742
*** Department of Criminal Legal Disciplines and Procedure, Sumy State University, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4569-8863
**** Department of Justice, Faculty of Law, Sumy National Agrarian University, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4501-708X
***** Department of Law and Law Enforcement of the Central Ukrainian Volodymyr Vynnychenko State
Pedagogical University, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1705-389X
365
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 364-376
Lucha contra la corrupción deportiva: un análisis de
las regulaciones internacionales
Resumen
Hoy en día, el deporte es una de las industrias más desarrolladas y
altamente rentables. Según diversas fuentes, los ingresos anuales de los
participantes de la industria se estiman en al menos $ 145 mil millones.
El artículo analiza los actos jurídicos internacionales anticorrupción
relevantes. Nos gustaría enfatizar que la adopción de estos documentos
y la raticación de la mayoría de ellos es un paso importante en la lucha
contra la corrupción en el deporte. Al mismo tiempo, la mayoría de estas
normas internacionales están dirigidas a combatir la corrupción, es decir,
ofrecen medidas activas y punitivas para combatirla. En cambio, los autores
insisten en la prioridad de las medidas preventivas contra la corrupción. Se
propone el enfoque clasicado del autor sobre las medidas para combatir
la corrupción en el deporte. Se concluye que, la primera medida debería ser
combatir la corrupción en las organizaciones deportivas internacionales.
La efectividad de las medidas anticorrupción en esta área depende
principalmente de la transparencia de sus actividades. Se determina que
otra área de corrupción en el deporte es la corrupción de base. La forma
más antigua de deporte corrupto es la que surge espontáneamente durante
las competencias entre dos participantes o dos equipos.
Palabras clave: corrupción deportiva; delitos penales; contraataque
a la corrupcion; cultura corporative; convenciones
internacionales.
Introduction
According to experts, sports corruption has existed for a long time.
During the rst Olympic Games, athletes and their representatives were
bribed in ancient Greece. Greek geographer and writer who lived in the II
century BC, Povsaniy called the competition «unconsecrated.» In addition,
K. Weber published the work «The Unholy Games: Ancient Olympia
between Legend and Reality», in which he described cases of «acquired
victories», bribery and «political intrigue». Based on the writings of writers
and critics, it can be assumed that the beginnings of corruption in the
sports industry appeared shortly after the start of the rst Olympic Games
in ancient Greece. Corruption is still an unresolved issue (Manukov, 2016:
34).
Nowadays, sport is one of the most developed and highly protable
industries. According to various sources, the annual income of industry
366
Olha Bondarenko, Maryna Utkina, Oleg Reznik, Petro Malanchuk y Vitalii Yurakh
Combating sports corruption: an analysis of international regulations
participants is estimated at at least $ 145 billion. Most cash ows ow
through international organizations, such as the International Football
Federation and the International Olympic Committee. The state of aairs
in sports shows that this environment has become one of the most corrupt.
For example, evidence of corruption in sports is match-xing, club tax
evasion, and the opacity of agency business (Sokolova, 2019).
This denition of the main features, types and measures to combat
sports corruption is essential.
1. Methods
The methodological basis of the study was a set of methods of scientic
knowledge. Of the philosophical methods, we used the phenomenological
method, which allowed us to analyze normative sources of national and
international law. With the help of the abstraction method, we were able
to investigate the grounds for the criminalization of illegal corruption in
sports. The generalization method made it possible to systematize the
types of sports corruption to identify the main areas of combating sports
corruption.
The hypothetical-deductive method ensured the implementation of a
cross-sectoral approach in analyzing the nature of sports corruption and
developing measures to combat its specic manifestations. In addition, we
used other methods of scientic knowledge, which in their complex allowed
us to ensure the completeness, objectivity, and depth of research on the
specics of combating sports corruption in Ukraine.
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. International anti-corruption legislation in the eld of
sports
The urgent need to combat sports corruption led to the accumulation of
eorts at the international level, which resulted in the adoption of relevant
anti-corruption international law: the International Convention against
Doping in Sport of October 19, 2005. Ukraine signed this convention on
November 18, 2005. and ratied on August 3, 2008.
The Convention contains binding rules for the harmonization of anti-
doping legislation, including barriers to the production and use of illicit
substances such as anabolic steroids; assistance in nancing anti-doping
tests; establishing links between the strict application of anti-doping
rules, and the provision of subsidies to sports organizations or individual
367
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 364-376
athletes; conducting regular doping control procedures during and outside
competitions, in particular in other countries. The Convention also contains
a list of prohibited substances. It is also essential to set up a monitoring
group to periodically review this list and monitor compliance (Anti-Doping
Convention, 2016).
Unfortunately, the ratication of the International Convention against
Doping in Sport has not led to appropriate changes in the criminal law of
Ukraine. In particular, it is advisable to supplement Art. 323 of the Criminal
Code of Ukraine indicates the scope of the law - sports, and therefore
provides for more severe penalties for doping in this area. It is essential to
supplement the Criminal Code of Ukraine with an article that will introduce
liability for doping (Reznik et al., 2020).
Another important anti-corruption document in sports is the Council
of Europe Convention against the Manipulation of Sports. This document
was signed on September 18, 2014, in Maglingen as part of the work of the
Council of Europe. Ukraine acceded to it on December 21, 2015, and ratied
it on November 17, 2016.
Under the Convention, Parties must provide for the possibility of
criminal prosecution for manipulating sports if it covers acts of coercion,
corruption, or fraud as dened in their legislation, as well as the adoption
of legislative and other measures aimed at establishing criminal liability
in their national law for laundering of proceeds of crime related to the
manipulation of sporting events and the prosecution of legal persons for
the oenses outlined in this Convention.
The Convention contains provisions on the cooperation of the Parties to
investigate, prosecute, and administer justice in respect of oenses covered
by it, including arrest and conscation. Teamwork is required in full
compliance with existing international, regional, and bilateral treaties on
mutual assistance in criminal matters and the law of each Party on oenses
under Articles 15-17 of the Convention (Article 26). The Convention also
provides for the Parties’ cooperation with international sports organizations
to ght against the manipulation of sports competitions (Council of Europe
Convention Against the Suppression of Sporting Competitions, 2014).
It should be noted that the relevant law in Ukraine was adopted before
the ocial signing of the Convention. In particular, November 3
In 2015, the Law of Ukraine, “On Prevention of the Impact of Corruption
Oenses on the Results of Ocial Sports Competitions,” was adopted.
, elimination of their consequences and application of the proper type of
legal liability (On the Prevention of the Impact of Corruption Oenses on
the Results of Ocial Sports Competitions, 2015). In particular, among
other things, the analyzed law provided for additions to the Code of Ukraine
on Administrative Oenses and the Criminal Code of Ukraine.
368
Olha Bondarenko, Maryna Utkina, Oleg Reznik, Petro Malanchuk y Vitalii Yu