Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 28/02/2022 Aceptado el 11/05/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca cn aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
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avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
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cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 345-363
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
International approaches
to legal regulation of juvenile justice
and juvenile prevention
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.18
Igor Pastukh *
Viktoriya Bass **
Oleksii Bukhtiiarov ***
Olena Maksymenko ****
Abstract
The article is dedicated to investigation of dierent approaches
in the eld of juvenile prevention and juvenile justice. The article
examines the features of juvenile justice and juvenile prevention
in dierent countries, in particular, in the United States, Britain,
France, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Ukraine. The existing
models of organizing the activities of the juvenile police, other
specialized bodies and institutions for children operating in foreign
countries are considered. The issues of organization and implementation
of crime prevention among children in dierent countries of the world
have been studied. Special attention is paid to the US experience in the
eld of juvenile justice and juvenile prevention. In particular, the system
of specialized bodies and institutions for children in the United States
was studied. International systemic acts on the settlement of juvenile
liability are analyzed. The analysis of world models of juvenile justice, in
particular, Anglo-Saxon, continental, Scandinavian, is carried out and their
peculiarities are singled out. The positive features of each of these models,
which can be borrowed, in particular, by Ukraine, have been identied.
Keywords: children’s rights; juvenile delinquency; juvenile justice;
juvenile prevention; juvenile responsibility.
* Head of the Department of Public management and Administration of the National Academy of Internal
Aairs, Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-
5889-7055
** Associate Professor of the Department of Police Law, National Academy of Internal Aairs, PhD in
Law, Associate Professor, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4915-2991
*** Associate Professor of the special disciplines and professional training University of the State Fiscal
Service of Ukraine, Doctor of Law, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6372-
0756
**** Senior Researcher of the Scientic Laboratory for Combating Crime of the Educational and Scientic
Institute 1 of the National Academy of Internal Aairs, PhD in Law, Senior Researcher, Kyiv,
Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6121-1061
346
Igor Pastukh, Viktoriya Bass, Oleksii Bukhtiiarov y Olena Maksymenko
International approaches to legal regulation of juvenile justice and juvenile prevention
Aproximaciones internacionales a la regulación legal
de la justicia juvenil y la prevención juvenil
Resumen
El artículo está dedicado a la investigación de diferentes enfoques en el
campo de la prevención juvenil y la justicia juvenil. El artículo examina las
características de la justicia juvenil y la prevención juvenil en diferentes
países, en particular, en los Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña, Francia,
los Países Bajos, Alemania, Italia y Ucrania. Se consideran los modelos
existentes de organización de las actividades de la policía juvenil, otros
cuerpos especializados e instituciones para niños que operan en varios
países. Se han estudiado los temas de organización e implementación de
la prevención del delito entre los niños en diferentes países del mundo. Se
presta especial atención a la experiencia estadounidense en el campo de la
justicia juvenil y la prevención juvenil. En particular, se estudió el sistema
de organismos e instituciones especializadas para niños en los Estados
Unidos. Se analizan los actos sistémicos internacionales sobre la liquidación
de la responsabilidad juvenil. Se realiza el análisis de modelos mundiales
de justicia juvenil, en particular, anglosajón, continental, escandinavo, y se
señalan sus peculiaridades. Se han identicado las características positivas
de cada uno de estos modelos, que pueden ser tomados prestados, en
particular, por Ucrania.
Palabras clave: derechos del niño; delincuencia juvenil; justicia juvenil;
prevención juvenil; responsabilidad juvenil.
Introduction
Today Ukraine faces the task of implementing the international
obligations undertaken in terms of providing children with special care
and assistance from the state, the implementation of the provisions of
the Constitution of Ukraine on recognition of a person, his or her life and
health, honor and dignity as the highest social value, ensuring the right of
everyone to the free development of one’s personality. Also, given the level
of juvenile delinquency, there is a need to develop eective measures to
protect the rights of children in conict with the law.
Ukrainian National Police units are responsible for taking preventive
measures with re-education and further social support of a child in conict
with the law. At the same time, the implementation of these areas should
strengthen the responsibility of the family, society and the state for the
upbringing and development of children, ensuring the rights and freedoms
of children in conict with the law by increasing their legal and social
protection, reducing juvenile delinquency.
347
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 345-363
Today’s socio-economic conditions, family upbringing, the negative
impact of the environment is closely linked to the causes of illegal
behavior of minors, which has its own specics and is associated with the
peculiarities of their age, physical and mental development, incomplete
moral development, legal immaturity, etc.
Therefore, today an important role is played by government agencies
and social institutions that deal with youth issues and which are responsible
for providing opportunities for full and comprehensive development of
minors, raising cultural, educational and professional level, their right to
social status in society, whose activities are regulated by both international
legal acts and legal norms of the state.
The level of juvenile delinquency in Ukraine has increased signicantly
recently, in particular, there is a type of latent, which is much more dangerous.
According to ocial statistics, the nature of juvenile delinquency often
changes, recurrences, criminal oenses related to weapons, etc. are more
common. More and more minors are being criminalized, also in connection
with changes in the environment, i.e., due to the circumstances that lead
to this. Juvenile criminal behavior very often depends on life, educational
process, culture, consciousness.
This highlights the need to study the problems in the eld of juvenile
prevention and juvenile justice in order to reduce juvenile delinquency and
the formation of a conscious and progressive society.
1. World approaches to legal regulation of juvenile justice and
juvenile prevention
According to resent investigations, the following periodization of the
history of juvenile justice can be proposed:
1. the rst half of the XX century - the formation of the foundations
of the classical model of juvenile justice, which modern Western
researchers dene as “humanitarian paternalism”;
2. 60-70s of the XX century - the crisis of the classical model of juvenile
justice, the rise of legal realism and the strengthening of the punitive
function of minors;
3. 70-90s of the XX century - managerialization of juvenile justice
under the inuence of liberalization of the criminal justice system
and management of social problems in general;
4. from the 90s of the XX century to the present - the development of
new forms of juvenile justice, namely: decriminalization, restorative
justice, family-focused approaches (Abeltsev et al., 2000).
348
Igor Pastukh, Viktoriya Bass, Oleksii Bukhtiiarov y Olena Maksymenko
International approaches to legal regulation of juvenile justice and juvenile prevention
The main tenet of juvenile justice in England and Wales is the prevention
of delinquent behavior, which means addressing issues related to lack of
education, the problems of disadvantaged families and others. According
to British experts, early intervention in this area can save the country up to
80 million pounds a year (Akimova, 2015). Thus, the state has developed a
number of prevention programs. Among them are the program of inclusion,
or inclusion in society of school-age youth (from primary to secondary
school), which operates in 110 districts with the highest crime rates. This
program combines training, identication of the child’s professional
orientation and the implementation of primary training in the profession.
Modern UK law is structured in such a way that in the case of an oense
committed by a person under the age of 18 who admits his guilt and repents
of his actions, his case is not brought to court. Such persons are dealt
with by the police, municipalities, other non-governmental organizations
that use regulations, the system of agreements, etc. in their work with
adolescents. In the case of a serious crime or if it is repeated, the case goes
to the juvenile court, which is a special branch of the magistrates’ court
(hearings are closed, the prosecutor and lawyer speak), and which decides
on imprisonment or other restrictions on transfer right, supervision, nes,
classes in special centers, etc. (Alauhanov, 2008).
With regard to the French juvenile justice system, the system is currently
based primarily on the Juvenile Delinquency Act of 2 February 1945
45-174, and includes all stages of justice from investigation to enforcement
and supervision of juvenile delinquency, adopted in respect of a minor
(Alekseev, 1998).
In France, work with dicult adolescents is more focused on crime
prevention. However, a law came into force in 2002 that punishes or
punishes juvenile oenders between the ages of 10 and 13, including
damages and / or assistance to victims, a ban on contact with individuals or
visits to certain places.
The average term of imprisonment for juveniles in France is 1 month.
Increasing the use of alternative measures to detention, as well as the
“semi-free” detention of prisoners, including through electronic bracelets,
would, according to some French experts and politicians, strengthen the
family’s educational role in the case of convicts (Meditsky, 2008).
In the Netherlands, since the introduction of the Criminal Law on the
Punishment of Children in the early twentieth century, judges have been
advised to apply various types of punishment to minors (under the age
of 18), including those not related to imprisonment. The juvenile justice
system of the Netherlands is represented by a prosecutor, a judge who has
the authority to conduct cases, make decisions both in case of violation of
children’s rights and in case of juvenile delinquency.
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 345-363
In general, the Netherlands is characterized by a multi-level system
of juvenile justice. At the rst stage, the police work with teenagers. If