Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 14/03/2022 Aceptado el 02/06/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca cn aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
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ti ga do res; es ti mu lar la in ves ti ga ción en es tas áreas del sa ber; y pro pi ciar la pre sen ta-
ción, dis cu sión y con fron ta ción de las ideas y avan ces cien tí fi cos con com pro mi so so cial.
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas apa re ce dos ve ces al o y pu bli ca tra ba jos ori gi na les con
avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
co, los cua les son so me ti dos a la con si de ra ción de ár bi tros ca li fi ca dos.
ESTA PU BLI CA CIÓN APA RE CE RE SE ÑA DA, EN TRE OTROS ÍN DI CES, EN
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Fabiola Tavares Duarte
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Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 330-344
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Dialectics of rights and
responsibilities in education
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.17
Nataliya Davydova *
Iryna Pokhylenko **
Nina Mialovytska ***
Nina Zlatina ****
Olesia Otradnova *****
Abstract
The objective of the article was to analyze the dialectic of rights
and responsibilities in education. The importance of education
is so great that the thesis of the responsibility of the person to
receive education has now been recognized. In order for the right
to education to be exercised, the domestic law of states provides
for a set of responsibilities for participants in the educational
process, the implementation of which actually guarantees access
to education. The real economic opportunities of States have a great impact
on the real content of the dialectical process of interaction of rights and
responsibilities in the eld of education. The relationship between the
participants in the educational process is regulated at several levels: rst,
the rules of domestic law and then the contractual level, represented by the
statutes of educational institutions, comes into force. It is concluded that, in
the most advanced systems, there may be a level of intra-group agreements
that are completely voluntary. The practical content of the educational
process is inuenced by several factors, including ideology, the objectives
set by a given society, the traditions and customs that have developed in it.
* Doctor of Science of Law, Professor Leading Researcher, Department of Private Law Academician
F.H. Burchak Scientic and Research Institute of Private Law and Entrepreneurship of the National
Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine, 01042, 23-a Raevsky Str., Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://
orcid.org/0000-0002-2362-3724
** Candidate of Science of Law, Docent, Associate professor, Department of Political Science and Law Kyiv
National University of Construction and Architecture Kyiv 03037, Povitrootsky Avenue 31. ORCID
ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5409-7408
*** Doctor of Law, Professor Department of Constitutional Law Taras Shevchenko National University of
Kyiv 60 Volodymyrska Street, Kyiv, Ukraine, 01033. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2861-
9879
**** Candidate of Juridical Sciences Associate Professor Department of Management and Marketing Kyiv
National Linguistic University 73 Velyka Vasylkivska Street, 03680, Ukraine Kyiv-150. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7674-9793
***** Professor Civil law department, Law School Taras Shevchenko national University of Kyiv 60
Volodymyrska street, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4206-8412
331
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 330-344
Keywords: educational process; legislation; actual content of rights and
responsibilities; education law; dialectic of rights.
Dialéctica de derechos y responsabilidades
en la educación
Resumen
El objetivo del artículo fue analizar la dialéctica de derechos y
responsabilidades en la educación. La importancia de la educación es tan
grande que en la actualidad se ha reconocido la tesis de la responsabilidad
de la persona de recibir educación. Para que el derecho a la educación
pueda ser ejercido, el derecho interno de los estados prevé un conjunto
de responsabilidades para los participantes en el proceso educativo, cuya
aplicación garantiza realmente el acceso a la educación. Las oportunidades
económicas reales de los Estados tienen un gran impacto en el contenido
real del proceso dialéctico de interacción de derechos y responsabilidades
en el ámbito de la educación. La relación entre los participantes en el
proceso educativo está regulada en varios niveles: en primer lugar, las
normas de derecho interno y después entra en vigor el nivel contractual,
representado por los estatutos de las instituciones educativas. Se concluye
que, en los sistemas más avanzados, puede haber un nivel de acuerdos
intragrupo que son completamente voluntarios. El contenido práctico del
proceso educativo está inuido por varios factores, entre ellos la ideología,
los objetivos que se ja una sociedad determinada, las tradiciones y las
costumbres que se han desarrollado en ella.
Palabras clave: proceso educativo; legislación; contenido real de los
derechos y responsabilidades; ley de educación;
dialéctica de derechos.
Introduction
The transfer of knowledge accumulated by previous generations of people
to new generations (what we call the educational process) is critical for the
survival, development and prosperity of both humanity as a whole and its
individual elements, which today have the form of states. This postulate has
been accepted by people for a very long time, and in the modern world it is
consolidated through the creation of a system of rights and responsibilities
of subjects acting in the eld of education.
332 Nataliya Davydova, Iryna Pokhylenko, Nina Mialovytska, Nina Zlatina y Olesia Otradnova
Dialectics of rights and responsibilities in education
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the fact that the process
of education demonstrates the dialectical process of struggle between its
components, although the action of each of these components is directed,
it would seem, towards a single goal. It experiences the strongest inuence
of historical factors (in the sense of understanding the content of rights and
obligations) and economic factors (in the sense of real implementation of
the stipulated rights and obligations).
It may be more expedient not to repeat the generally recognized
provisions on rights and obligations, but to investigate the eld of education
at the level of each individual state, comparing the goals and methods,
actually granted rights and practically fullled duties of teachers and
students, legal and material support of the process by the state, and then
compare the results in terms of the resulting progress.
1. Literature review
We are unlikely to nd conicting opinions in the literature regarding
the existence of rights and obligations and their content in the eld
of education. There is no ground for dispute, for scientic discussion
here. Everyone agrees with the existence of the right to education as an
inalienable human right and the existence of a reciprocal obligation of the
state to ensure it.
The publications of the authors in countries with developed education
systems do not deal with the issues of rights and obligations at all, since
these issues have been settled there for a long time, they are based on the
existing legislation and the well-established traditions of society. Judging
by the materials published by, say, British authors, this country has focused
on raising educational standards, the level of intellectual development of
citizens, and improving the quality of educational programs (Perera et al.,
2016).
But if we turn to research related to the realization of the right to
education in African countries, then it will not be unexpected for us those
researchers see the main task in ensuring access to education in general,
and to more or less quality education, in particular (Evans and Mendez,
2021). In the popular work of Katarzyna Tomaševski, it is rightly noted that
the rights associated with education can be divided into three categories
- the right to receive education, the rights used in the course of the
educational process and the rights that a person can exercise after receiving
an education (Tomaševski, 2001).
The works of the authors in the area under consideration are mainly
divided into three directions. Firstly, a lot of materials are devoted to the
333
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 330-344
statement of the fact that in this state the human right to receive education
is recognized and legislatively enshrined (see, for example, the works of
Melnychuk (2013). Alex Guilherme brings a fresh idea to this reasoning,
asking the question: we can voluntarily refuse to temporarily exercise
certain rights, for example, the right to health care, but why can’t we give
up the right to receive education? Because it’s our responsibility, he replies
(Guilherme, 2016).
This thesis is consonant with the idea that legal relations in the eld
of education should be classied as interactive, when both parties to the
process are obliged to take certain “counter” actions (Valeev, 2011).
The second question that worries researchers in this eld is the actual
embodiment of the proclaimed rights to education in a particular country.
One can name a number of works by Indian authors related to the study of
the results of the implementation of the Right to Education Act, adopted by
Indian legislators in 2009 (Ojha Seema, 2013). Researchers rightly note the
fact that statutory provisions often do not get their practical implementation
due to insucient funding or due to ambiguous interpretation of a certain
provisions (Khomyshyn, 2018). Some of the works are devoted to the duties
of the teaching sta of educational institutions.
This issue relates more to the moral and ethical area, since the
conscientiousness of the attitude towards the performance of one’s
professional duties can hardly be regulated by legal norms. As an example,
Sara Sepulkri can be cited in which she lists as a teacher’s duties, in
particular, the responsibility to be organized, wear professional clothing,
smile, call students by name and answer questions (Sepulkri, 2021) Some
authors pay attention to the immediate rights and responsibilities of
students, which they exercise in the learning process. Here, the inuence
of traditional views is more noticeable, since undoubted responsibilities
include, for example, adhering to a certain dress code or adhering to the
rules of sports games. It is interesting to single out as a special duty