Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 02/05/2022 Aceptado el 15/06/2022
ISSN 0798-1406 ~ Depósito legal pp 198502ZU132
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com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 311-329
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Investigation and justice
of crimes committed under war
conditions in Ukraine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.16
Nataliya Ortynska *
Volodymyr Baranyak **
Inna Tsyliuryk ***
Yana Koniushenko ****
Ihor Krasiuk *****
Abstract
The purpose of the article is to review the topic of investigation
and administration of justice in relation to crimes committed
during the war in Ukraine, as one of the important elements
of transitional justice. The authors focus on the possibility of
applying the concept of post-conict solution in Ukraine after
the end of hostilities provoked by armed aggression. The article draws
attention to the fact that in order to counter these crimes it must be
necessary: to develop eective mechanisms and establish communication
within universal jurisdiction with other countries that have experience in
investigating Russian military aggressions; extensive use of the capabilities
of the International Commission on Human Rights established by the
UN Human Rights Council to investigate war crimes committed by the
aggressor’s armed forces and violations of international humanitarian law,
the prepared evidence of which can be used in all international and national
*Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department Theories of law and constitutionalism
of the Educational and Scientic Institute of Law, Psychology and Innovative Education, Lviv
Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5061-5340
** Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of Criminal
Law and Procedure of the Educational and Scientic Institute of Law, Psychology and Innovative
Education, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-
0001-6161-7862
*** Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of Criminal Law and
Procedure of the Educational and Scientic Institute of Law, Psychology and Innovative Education,
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4776-
2278
**** Candidate of legal science, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of Criminal
Process, National Academy of Internal Aairs, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-
0003-4988-0793
***** Deputy Head of the Department of Handwriting Research at the Laboratory of Forensic Research Kyiv
Scientic Research Institute of Forensic Expertise at the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine; Applicant of
the Department of Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics of the University of the State Fiscal Service of
Ukraine, Irpin, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7099-2509
312
Nataliya Ortynska, Volodymyr Baranyak, Inna Tsyliuryk, Yana Koniushenko y Ihor Krasiuk
Investigation and justice of crimes committed under war conditions in Ukraine
jurisdictions. It is concluded that it is urgent to borrow positive international
experience in the standardization of current national legislation, aimed
at optimizing the process of documentation and investigation of crimes
against humanity, bringing the perpetrators to justice.
Keywords: war crimes; Rome Statute; International Criminal Court;
ratication; Transitional justice.
Investigación y justicia de crímenes cometidos en
condiciones de guerra en Ucrania
Resumen
El propósito del artículo es revisar el tema de la investigación y
administración de justicia en relación con los crímenes cometidos durante
la guerra en Ucrania, como uno de los elementos importantes de la justicia
transicional. Los autores se centran en la posibilidad de aplicar el concepto
de solución posconicto en Ucrania tras el n de las hostilidades provocadas
por la agresión armada. El artículo llama la atención sobre el hecho de
que para contrarrestar estos crímenes debe ser necesario: desarrollar
mecanismos efectivos y establecer comunicación dentro de la jurisdicción
universal con otros países que tienen experiencia en la investigación
de agresiones militares rusas; uso extensivo de las capacidades de la
Comisión Internacional de Derechos Humanos establecida por el Consejo
de Derechos Humanos de la ONU para investigar crímenes de guerra
cometidos por las fuerzas armadas del agresor y violaciones del derecho
internacional humanitario, cuya evidencia preparada puede usarse en
todas las jurisdicciones internacionales y nacionales. Se concluye que urge
tomar prestada la experiencia internacional positiva en la estandarización
de la legislación nacional vigente, destinada a optimizar el proceso de
documentación e investigación de crímenes de lesa humanidad, llevando a
los perpetradores ante la justicia.
Palabras clave: crímenes de guerra; Estatuto de Roma; Corte Penal
Internacional; raticación; Justicia transicional.
Introduction
Full-scale military operations on the territory of Ukraine and the related
temporary occupation of its separate territories by the Russian Federation
(hereinafter – the Russian Federation) have challenged not only the national
313
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 311-329
security of the Ukrainian state, but also the ability to eectively protect and
restore human rights and fundamental freedoms in terms of overcoming
the consequences of the armed conict. Such illegal actions have killed and
injured many civilians, and forced more than 10 million Ukrainians from
illegal military incursions and temporarily occupied territories to ee their
homes, leading to inuxes of internally displaced persons.
By their nature, crimes committed during the war are one of the most
serious and serious crimes known to mankind. In accordance with the
norms of international law, the state on the territory of which war crimes are
committed is the most active in investigating and bringing the perpetrators
to justice (Nazarchuk, 2020). In such circumstances, Ukraine must not
only respond adequately to hostilities in its own and temporarily occupied
territories, but also ensure that criminal acts are properly investigated and
the perpetrators brought to justice. After all, «the duty of any state is to
protect its citizens, in whatever situation and in what territory they nd
themselves» (Investigation of war crimes).
Each category of war crime has its own problems and obstacles. At
the same time, there are general problems of pre-trial investigation
and administration of justice, which, in our opinion, are inherent in all
categories of crimes and which indicate that the poor quality of pre-trial
investigation and criminal justice is a consequence not only of war but also
inability of criminal justice bodies to act eectively. This situation, in turn,
creates serious risks of ineective investigation, prosecution, violation of
the rights and legitimate interests of participants in criminal proceedings.
1. Methodology of the study
The peculiarity of the applied methodology is determined by the main
tasks of studying the peculiarities of the investigation of crimes in wartime
in the international and national aspects. Solving them involves studying
not only the implementation at the constitutional and legal levels and at the
level of criminal procedural mechanisms, but also a number of other related
legal phenomena. That is why the variety of approaches, methods and
means of knowledge to ensure the process of documenting, investigating
and prosecuting war criminals is a necessary condition for successful
analysis of this phenomenon.
The philosophical and methodological basis of the research is formed
on the basis of dialectical, hermeneutic and comparative approaches
to the knowledge of legal phenomena. They led to the use of a set of
philosophical, general and special research methods. Among the general
scientic methods used, rst of all, analysis, synthesis, deduction, systemic,
historical, comparative, structural-functional, classication, generalization,
prognostic and other methods.
314
Nataliya Ortynska, Volodymyr Baranyak, Inna Tsyliuryk, Yana Koniushenko y Ihor Krasiuk
Investigation and justice of crimes committed under war conditions in Ukraine
In the process of scientic research special legal methods were also
used: comparative legal, formal-legal method, interpretation, study of legal
practice, method of document analysis, etc. The specicity of the subject of
research has led to a combination of certain methodological approaches and
principles characteristic of the science of criminal procedure, international,
constitutional and criminal law.
2. Analysis of recent research
War crimes directly related to international criminal law are particularly
dangerous to humanity and undermine the international security and
law enforcement system. Many years of eorts by the international
community have yielded fruitful results, which are reected in the
formation of international legal norms that establish the grounds and
conditions of responsibility for crimes against peace, security of mankind
and international law and order. With the signing of the Rome Statute in
1998, on July 1, 2002, the International Criminal Justice Authority, which
is responsible for prosecuting those responsible for genocide, war crimes,
crimes against humanity and aggression, has been ocially operational on
a permanent basis.
To date, Ukraine has also taken some steps at the national level, and
the development of Ukrainian law enforcement agencies to document
and investigate crimes of military aggression, make numerous changes to
criminal and criminal procedure legislation, indicates a desire to optimize
investigations into this category of crimes. persons of the aggressor’s
country.
The work of many domestic and foreign scholars and practitioners
is devoted to the research of certain issues of the organization of the
investigation of crimes committed during the war, the implementation of
the provisions of international law at the constitutional, legal and criminal
procedural levels. At the same time, the issue of introducing systematic
and eective documentation and investigation of war crimes is becoming
especially important in the martial law in Ukraine, as one of the measures
to overcome their consequences and an important element of transitional
justice.
315
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 311-329
3. Results and discussion
3.1. National mechanisms for investigating crimes committed
during the war in Ukraine
Russia’s aggressive war against Ukraine is one of the most obvious
violations of Article 2 (4) of the Charter of the United Nations since its entry
into force. In addition to the legal consequences for the responsibility of
the Russian Federation as a state, these events again aroused interest in
individual responsibility for the crime of aggression. One of the steps of
Ukraine’s adequate response to such the most horric and daring criminal
oenses was to amend the legislation in order to optimize the investigation
and bring the perpetrators to justice.
Bills have recently entered into force in Ukraine, which will regulate some
procedural issues in the work of courts and law enforcement agencies under
martial law. In particular, draft laws 7117 (on amendments to the Law
of Ukraine “On Judiciary and Status of Judges” to change the jurisdiction
of courts) and № 7118 (on amendments to the Criminal Procedure Code of
Ukraine and other legislative acts of Ukraine on additional regulation of law
enforcement in complex martial law) (Law Of Ukraine «On Amendments
To The Criminal Procedure Code Of Ukraine And Other Legislative Acts Of
Ukraine On Additional Regulation Of Law Enforcement In Dicult Martial
Law»; Law Of Ukraine «On Amendments To The Law Of Ukraine «On
The Judiciary And The Status Of Judges On Changing The Jurisdiction Of
Courts», 2022).
Consider in more detail the changes made to the Criminal Procedure
Code of Ukraine.
In case of impossibility to enter information on criminal oense into
the Unied State Register of Pre-trial Investigations and, accordingly,
impossibility to form an extract from this Register, information on
registration of criminal oense and commencement of pre-trial investigation
may be conrmed by a reasoned decision of pre-trial investigation body.
information specied in Art. 214 of the Criminal Procedure Code of
Ukraine. Such a document may be considered a proper conrmation of the
commencement of the pre-trial investigation and a basis for consideration
of the requests of the pre-trial investigation body (Criminal Procedure Code
Of Ukraine, 2012).
According to the rst part of Art. 615 of the Criminal Procedure Code
of Ukraine in the area (administrative territory), where the legal regime
of martial law, state of emergency, anti-terrorist operation or measures to
ensure national security and defense, repel and deter armed aggression in
Donetsk and Lugansk regions, in case of impossibility by law the terms of