Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 29/02/2022 Aceptado el 25/04/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 292-310
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Eectiveness of gender policy in the
activities of the Ukrainian police in
the context of intensifying European
integration processes
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.15
Taisiia Korzh-Ikaieva *
Anzhela Kaliniuk **
Lesia Shapoval ***
Liakh Nelya ****
Natalia Polishko *****
Abstract
The article oers a comparative legal analysis of the legislation
in the regulation of the combat and prevention of gender violence
by the police, studying, for this, the best international experience
in this area. It indicates the need to dene in the law prole the
specic subdivisions of the National Police that carry out prevention of
domestic violence, gender violence (Department of Preventive Activities;
Patrol Service; Youth Prevention Units; District Police Service) to regulate
its powers, competences and attributions. It is argued that a number of
organizational and technical measures will help to increase the eectiveness
of gender policy in the activities of the Ukrainian police: the creation of
widely available databases showing statistics on cases of gender-based
domestic violence, investigations and punishments, categories of victims
and perpetrators. By way of conclusion, the desirability of introducing
international best practices in policing in this area is demonstrated, in
particular the adaptation of the «Blue Card» procedure carried out by the
Polish police.
* Candidate of legal sciences, Associate Professor, senior inspector of the personnel sector, Main
Directorate of the National Police in Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8908-
9923
** Philosophy Doctor of law, senior lecturer of the department of the civil and juridical disciplines,
National Academy of Internal Aairs, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8032-
3632
*** Candidate of legal sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the civil and juridical disciplines,
National Academy of Internal Aairs, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4503-
9075
**** Senior lecturer at the Department of Polish Law, National Academy of Internal Aairs, Kyiv, Ukraine.
ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0260-708Х
***** Senior lecturer of the department of the civil and juridical disciplines, National Academy of Internal
Aairs, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3898-3896
293
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 292-310
Keywords: gender policy; National Police of Ukraine; prevention;
domestic violence; gender discrimination.
Ecacia de la política de género en las actividades de la
policía ucraniana en el contexto de la intensicación de
los procesos de integración europea
Resumen
El artículo ofrece un análisis jurídico comparativo de la legislación en
la regulación del combate y prevención de la violencia de género por parte
de la policía, estudiando, para ello, la mejor experiencia internacional
en este ámbito. Se indica la necesidad de denir en el perl de ley las
subdivisiones especícas de la Policía Nacional que realizan prevención a la
violencia intrafamiliar, violencia de género (Departamento de Actividades
Preventivas; Servicio de Patrullas; Unidades de Prevención Juvenil;
Servicio de Policías Distritales) para regular sus poderes, competencias y
atribuciones. Se argumenta que una serie de medidas organizativas y técnicas
ayudarán a aumentar la ecacia de la política de género en las actividades de
la policía ucraniana: la creación de bases de datos ampliamente disponibles
que muestren estadísticas sobre casos de violencia doméstica por razón de
género, investigaciones y castigos, categorías de víctimas y perpetradores.
A modo de conclusión se demuestra la conveniencia de la introducción de
las mejores prácticas internacionales de la actividad policial en este ámbito,
en particular, la adaptación del procedimiento “Carta Azul” llevado a cabo
por la policía polaca.
Palabras clave: política de género; policía nacional de Ucrania;
prevención; violencia doméstica; discriminación de
género.
Introduction
One of the consequences of gender inequality in society, unequal
distribution of power and imbalance of representation of women and men
in dierent spheres of life is gender-based violence, which is one of the
most common problems in measuring modern social space and has a long
history. The concept of “gender-based violence” encompasses such acts of
violence against a person because of being a victim of violence, as well as the
role of people dened by public opinion and their expected behavior. At the
present stage of society, the most common types of gender-based violence
294
Taisiia Korzh-Ikaieva, Anzhela Kaliniuk, Lesia Shapoval, Liakh Nelya y Natalia Polishko
Eectiveness of gender policy in the activities of the Ukrainian police in the context of intensifying
European integration processes
in the world are rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, prostitution,
and sex tracking.
Examples of gender-based violence, which are explained by so-called
culture, traditions and customs, are also widespread in the world. For
example, early or child (often forced) marriages, female genital mutilation,
honor killings (Zaporozhtsev et al., 2012). The determinant of violence
is the ingrained stereotype of the dominance of one sex over another in
society and the family.
XX-XXI centuries are the era of establishing gender equality - social
equality of men and women, the establishment of the foundations of gender
parity and gender democracy (Perunova, 2020). The Constitution and
other normative legal documents guarantee equality of men and women in
Ukraine in all sectors. The country has acceded to all major international
commitments in the eld of gender equality and women’s rights to establish
an institutional mechanism for the implementation of key tasks and the
practical implementation of the law, including the Ukrainian police.
The Council of Europe`s Gender Equality Strategy for 2018-2023 states
that achieving gender equality is a key element in the implementation of
the Council of Europe`s mission, which is to protect human rights, uphold
democracy and ensure the rule of law, and states that gender equality
involves equal rights for women and men, girls and boys, as well as their
equal importance, opportunities, responsibilities and participation in all
spheres of public and private life (The council of europe’s gender equality
strategy for 2018-2023, 2018).
Ukraine has created certain conditions for combating and preventing
domestic and gender-based violence. In particular, the Law of Ukraine
“On Prevention and Counteraction to Domestic Violence” denes the
organizational and legal framework for preventing and combating such
violence, the main directions of state policy in the eld of preventing
and combating it, aimed at protecting the rights and interests of victims
of such violence (Law of Ukraine “On Prevention and Counteraction to
Domestic Violence”, 2019). However, as practice shows, citizens remain
dissatised with the level of public administration in preventing and
combating domestic violence in Ukraine, including the Ukrainian police,
and regulations in this area are ineective. These circumstances justify the
relevance of this scientic article.
1. Methodology of the study
To achieve the set goals and objectives, to ensure the reliability of the
results and conclusions used a system of methods of scientic knowledge.
295
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 292-310
The dialectical method contributed to the consideration and study of
the problem in the unity of its social content and legal form and the
implementation of a systematic analysis of gender policy in the activities
of the Ukrainian police in the context of intensication of European
integration processes.
The system-structural method allowed to study the state policy in
the eld of protection of children from violence and other illegal actions
as a holistic set of interacting elements. The use of statistical methods
contributed to the generalization of legal practice; analysis of empirical
information related to the research topic. The comparative legal method
was used during the review and study of legal literature, the main scientic
approaches to solving the tasks of research and analysis of domestic
legislation in the process of clarifying its relationship with similar rules of
foreign law and practice of its application.
The formal-legal method was used in the study of normative sources of
scientic work, which allowed to identify shortcomings of current legislation
of Ukraine, which regulates the activities of the National Police of Ukraine
in the eld of protection of victims of gender violence and other illegal
actions, to formulate proposals to improve their activities. These methods
in correlation with the general logical methods and techniques (analysis,
synthesis, induction, deduction, analogy) allowed a comprehensive and
eective study of the peculiarities of the implementation of gender policy in
the Ukrainian police.
The scientic and theoretical basis of the article are scientic works
of domestic and foreign experts in the eld of management theory,
administrative law, civil law, criminal law, criminology, sociology and other
branches of legal sciences.
2. Analysis of recent research
Issues of developing mechanisms aimed at improving the eectiveness
of gender policy in modern conditions have a special place in the scientic
research of such scientists as: O. Perunova (Perunova, 2020), A. Blaga
(Blaga et al., 2012), F. Zaiert (Zaiert, 2013), A. Galay (Galay, 2014),
K. Guseva (Guseva, 2020), A. Zaporozhtsev (Zaporozhtsev et al., 2012),
K. Dovgun (Dovhun, 2021), N. Lesko (Lesko, 2019) and many others.
Despite the active research in Ukraine on the protection of victims of
gender-based violence, the issue of improving the eectiveness of gender
policy in the activities of the Ukrainian police in modern conditions has
not been studied separately. In the available scientic works, these aspects
were covered either in fragments or within a much broader issue. Instead,
296
Taisiia Korzh-Ikaieva, Anzhela Kaliniuk, Lesia Shapoval, Liakh Nelya y Natalia Polishko
Eectiveness of gender policy in the activities of the Ukrainian police in the context of intensifying
European integration processes
the study of the current state of improving the eectiveness of gender policy
in the Ukrainian police in the context of intensifying European integration
processes, as well as making proposals on this basis to improve legislation
and practice in its application is extremely important and necessary.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Regulatory and legal regulation of prevention of gender-
based violence in Ukraine
The study of the problem of improving the eectiveness of gender policy
in the activities of the Ukrainian police in the context of intensication of
European integration processes will logically begin with an analysis of legal
regulations for the prevention of gender-based violence in Ukraine.
International legal regulation of domestic and gender-based violence
is carried out by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the UN Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the UN
Convention on Marriage, age of marriage and registration of marriage, the
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the European Convention for
the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the European
Convention on the Exercise of Children’s Rights and other acts.
In general, it should be noted that the system of international legal
regulation in the eld of combating domestic and gender-based violence
includes a signicant number of “soft law” acts, which serve as a basis
for improving national legal systems in combating gender-based violence
legal acts that have become binding on countries in connection with their
ratication. Such acts include the UN Declaration on the Elimination of
Violence against Women and the UN Model Law on Domestic Violence.
Among the international legal instruments in the eld of combating
domestic and gender-based violence is the Council of Europe Convention
on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic
Violence (Council of Europe convention on preventing violence against
women and domestic violence, 2013). To date, Ukraine has not ratied this
Convention, although domestic and international experts say that it has
now become particularly relevant.
We believe that ratication of the Istanbul Convention would allow
Council of Europe experts to monitor Ukraine’s compliance with its
commitments, and Ukraine would have the right to demand increased
accountability for perpetrators of Ukrainian citizens abroad. In addition,
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Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 292-310
it makes it possible to demand