Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.40 N° 73
Julio
Diciembre
2022
Recibido el 26/03/2022 Aceptado el 24/05/2022
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De pó si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
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cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 40, Nº 73 (2022), 172-191
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Building Legal Mechanisms for
Electronic Governance Development
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.4073.08
Valeriy Dovhan *
Iryna Yunyk **
Oleh Kurchyn ***
Vasyl Zhupnyk ****
Serhii Moskalenko *****
Abstract
The aim of the study was to identify the legal mechanisms
for the establishment of e-government and the development
of e-governance from the perspective of international law and
national legislation of countries where the level of e-governance
is very high. Empirical and theoretical methods of scientic
knowledge, as well as the comparative analysis were used for
a comprehensive coverage of the research topic. It is found
that the community-oriented principles are the basis for the functioning
of e-government with a view to the digital transformation values. The
establishment of digital government in dierent countries with a very high
level of e-governance has its own peculiarities related to the status of the
national legal framework, institutional capacity and economic development,
information policy and information security. It was established that the
e-governance should be improved by eliminating the digital gap, raising
the level of digital literacy, creating a single competent authority to regulate
public e-governance policy, introducing a network system of access to
e-government services, and establishing a system for training civil servants
on the provision of electronic services. Further research on e-governance
may be focused on follow-up study and argumentation in order to determine
eective legal tools of its regulation.
* Scientic-Research Institute, National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine named
after Bohdan Khmelnytskyi. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5435-5451
** Candidate of рublic аdministration, Associate professor of Department of Public Administration,
Faculty of Law, Public Administration and Administration, Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State
Pedagogical University. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0985-1800
*** Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor of Academic Department of Civil and Legal Disciplines,
Faculty of Law and Linguistics, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University. ORCID ID: https://orcid.
org/0000-0002-8133-4293
**** PhD in Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of Department of Law, King Danylo University. ORCID
ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1417-3394
***** Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Foreign Economic Activity Management, National
Aviation University. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2396-9570
173
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 172-191
Keywords: e-government; digital government; information and
communication technologies; information society; public
service.
Construcción de Mecanismos Legales para el
Desarrollo de la Gobernanza Electrónica
Resumen
El objetivo del estudio fue identicar los mecanismos legales para
el establecimiento del gobierno electrónico y el desarrollo del gobierno
digital desde la perspectiva del derecho internacional y la legislación
nacional de países donde el nivel de gobierno electrónico es muy alto. Se
utilizaron métodos empíricos y teóricos del conocimiento cientíco, así
como el análisis comparativo para una cobertura integral del tema de
investigación. Se encuentra que los principios orientados a la comunidad
son la base para el funcionamiento del gobierno electrónico con miras a
los valores de transformación digital. El establecimiento del gobierno
digital en diferentes países con un nivel muy alto de gobierno electrónico
tiene sus propias peculiaridades relacionadas con el estado del marco legal
nacional, la capacidad institucional y el desarrollo económico, la política
de información y la seguridad de la información. Se concluye que se debe
mejorar el gobierno electrónico eliminando la brecha digital, elevando el
nivel de alfabetización digital, creando una autoridad única competente
para regular la política pública de gobierno electrónico, introduciendo
un sistema de red de acceso a los servicios de gobierno electrónico, para
establecer un sistema de capacitación de los servidores públicos en la
prestación de servicios.
Palabras clave: gobierno electrónico; gobierno digital; tecnologías
de la información y la comunicación; sociedad de
información; servicio público.
Introduction
Digital technologies have become a driving force for socio-economic
development and economic recovery in many countries. Information
and communication technologies are becoming the foundation for
sustainable development in almost all spheres of life, including e-economy,
e-governance, e-democracy, e-commerce, e-education, e-medicine,
e-research and e-innovation. They do not change activities, but the
technological capability to use the latest knowledge.
174
Valeriy Dovhan, Iryna Yunyk, Oleh Kurchyn, Vasyl Zhupnyk y Serhii Moskalenko
Building Legal Mechanisms for Electronic Governance Development
The modern conditions of the Information Age require not only a
radical modernization of society itself, but also the power vertical, which
reects this society and the inevitability of its administrative reform.
Digital technologies are implemented in the public administration through
the establishment of e-governance. In this context, the management
and activities of national governments are determined by the usage of
information and communication technologies with a focus on the citizens’
need to use information networks. This public administration model allows
the citizen to receive public information or administrative service online
and thus make governance more ecient and transparent by establishing
public control over it. The United Nations (2000) Millennium Declaration
adopted by the General Assembly on September 8, 2000 enshrines
access to the benets of new technologies, especially information and
communication technologies, through which e-government services are
provided. Therefore, establishing legal mechanisms for the development of
e-governance is currently a topical issue.
The aim of this research is to determine the legal tools for implementing
and developing e-governance through the prism of international standards
and provisions of national legislation of countries with a very high level of
e-governance. The aim involved the following research objectives:
- determine and describe international standards for the establishment
and development of e-governance;
- consider the fundamental principles of e-governance in the context
of international standards;
- analyse the legal provisions of countries with a very high level of
e-governance and determine the legal tools that they use in the
implementation of e-government services;
- identify the main problems in the legal regulation of e-governance
and suggest ways to solve them.
1. Literature Review
Many scholars dealt with the issues of legal support of e-governance and
the introduction of eective legal mechanisms regulation. Elbahnasawy
(2021) examined conceptual approaches to the development of future
e-governance and identied economic growth and political stability as the
basis for its development. Ma and Zheng (2019) studied the development of
e-government in European countries in the context of the developing legal
awareness, trust and digital capabilities of the people of these countries.
Glyptis et al. (2020) considered the status of e-governance in the EU through
the prism of the peculiarities of the legal provision of public administration
175
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 172-191
in dierent EU member states. Bharosa et al. (2020) studied e-governance
in Estonia and the Netherlands and found that combination of institutions,
information and communication technologies, legal tools and public
administration help to achieve the eectiveness of e-government services.
Tangi et al. (2021) examined e-governance at the local level in Italy in the
context of e-maturity of Italians.
Roux et al. (2020) studied the eectiveness of e-governance in the exercise
of electoral rights in the United States, and noted that the use of information
and communication technologies is relevant in view of the current
globalization trends in establishing e-democracy and the general form of
public will expression — voting. Lee and Porumbescu (2019) and Sangki
(2018) examined e-government services in South Korea and established its
rapid growth due to the rapid development of information technology in this
country and the transition of its society from industrial to highly developed
information society. Liu et al. (2020) dealt with e-governance in China
and identied three aspects that aect its development: the environment
(political institutions); process (introduction of information technologies,
public relations and their interaction); productivity.
Kurfalı et al. (2017) explored the sector of e-government services in
Turkey in terms of promoting Turkish e-government services by identifying
the needs and priorities of citizens for those services. Lallmahomed et al.
(2017) studied the preconditions for establishing e-government services in
Mauritius in the context of building trust, legal awareness and improving
privacy protection in using e-government services. Lumbanraja (2020)
dealt with the urgency of public administration reform and the provision of
e-government services in Indonesia to promote synergies and harmonization
between public authorities by eliminating duplication of functions between
them to provide the same services. Almotawkel and Qureshi (2021) reviewed
the status of e-governance in the Middle East and distinguished the main
factors of its development: communication infrastructure, human resource
eciency, annual costs and legal awareness of society.
Park and Kim (2020) and considered e-government as an anti-
corruption tool. Chen et al. (2019) analysed the factors that contribute
to the e-government eectiveness, where they included technical, legal,
managerial, inter-organizational factors. Wijatmoko (2020) examined
the competence of public authorities to provide electronic administrative
services to society, in particular: correctional, migration services,
intellectual property services, information and communication protection,
general legal administration services and others. Reviewing the evolution
of e-government, Alcaide–Muñoz et al. (2017) recognize the prospects
for its development by building a system of e-government services, the
introduction of public e-government policy and the introduction of
technological tools.
176
Valeriy Dovhan, Iryna Yunyk, Oleh Kurchyn, Vasyl Zhupnyk y Serhii Moskalenko
Building Legal Mechanisms for Electronic Governance Development
Nevertheless, the application of legal tools to regulate e-government,
the reasons for ineciency of e-government services and ways to overcome
them are only partially covered despite the wide range of studies on this
issue, which determines the topicality of this research.
2. Methods and Materials
This research was conducted in three stages. The rst stage involved
the search and study of scientic literature on information, scientic works
on the legal problems of implementation of e-government, the provisions
of international treaties on information society development, national
legislation of countries with very high levels of e-government, the practice
of applying legal tools of digital government. The topic, aim and objectives
of the study were determined on the basis of the analysis of this literature.
In the second stage involved a theoretical and experimental study of the
chosen topic through comparing their results and analysing the dierences.
The content of e-governance from the perspective of international standards
and legal mechanisms for its implementation was determined through
theoretical research. The objectives were fullled and the legal background
for e-government, principles and ways to improve legal e-government
regulation were determined through the experimental research based on
international standards, the legal framework of European information policy
and the generalization of their practical application, as well as doctrinal
analysis of scientic papers on problematic issues of e-government.
The third stage provided for the nal analysis to achieve the aim, as
well as for the presentation of research results by writing an article on a
computer.
The empirical and theoretical methods of scientic knowledge were used
in the study of research topic. Empirical knowledge reects the content
of the object of study — the legal regulation of e-government — from the
perspective of international legal support and legal relations in the eld of
information society development. Scientic, legal and practical information
on e-governance and its e-services system was analysed through comparative
analysis. Theoretical knowledge of the legal background of e-governance
reveals the subject of research in terms of the universal internal essential
connections and patterns covered by the rational processing of empirical
data. The empirical and theoretical methods were combined to provide
an empirical interpretation of the theory and theoretical interpretation of
empirical data, as well as to reveal the principles of digital government.
The research sample included the following objects: the legal background
for the development of the information society and e-governance,
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 40 Nº 73 (2022): 172-191
international standards of digital government, the e-government principles
and obstacles to its development. The legal background for the introduction
of e-governance, e-government resources and a list of public e-services were
determined through dispositions of the legislation of Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, Sweden, Great Britain, Norway, Canada in the eld of information
society development, generalization of practical application of international
and European legislation on e-government and statistics United Nations
E-Government Survey 2020. The combination of these objects helped to
reveal the problems of establishing the legal mechanisms of e-governance.
The research was based on information retrieval using a computer, the
global computer network and scientometric databases.
The research was based on the following international legal acts: UN
Millennium Declaration, Okinawa Charter for the Global Information