Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.39 N° 70
2021
Recibido el 13/07/2021 Aceptado el 19/09/2021
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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Vol. 39, Nº 70 (2021), 139-152
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
The role of the Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court in
strengthening the international
legal order
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.3970.08
Vitalii Gutnyk *
Yaroslav Yavorskyy **
Roksolana Klymkevych ***
Abstract
The article examines the special role of the Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order. This analysis was carried out through the prism of
the study of certain issues: the concept of “Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court” and his place in the system of
international criminal justice; the powers of the Prosecutor
at certain stages of the proceedings in the International Criminal Court;
the principles of strategy and priority in the activities of the Prosecutor.
Historical, system-structural, analysis and synthesis, comparative legal,
formal-legal, and formal dogmatic methods were used in the research.
In the article was made conclution that that the Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court has a preventive effect on international
crimes, because the work of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal
Court is aimed not only at punishing perpetrators of international
crimes, but also at preventing the commitment of such crimes in the
future. It is emphasized that such activities of the Prosecutor ultimately
have a positive effect on strengthening the international legal order.
Keywords: P rosecutor;OceoftheProsecutor;InternationalCriminal
Court; international legal order; international crime.
* Doctor of legal sciences, professor of International Law Department, Ivan Franko National University
of Lviv, Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1401-4393. Email: vitalik_gutnik@ukr.net
** Candidate of legal sciences, senior lecturer of the Department of International Law and Migration
Policy, West Ukrainian National University, Ternopil, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-
0002-6218-8200. Email: st361@ukr.net
*** LectureroftheDepartmentofcriminallawdisciplines,LvivStateUniversityofInternalAairs,Lviv,
Ukraine. ORСID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9848-3837. Email: rklymkevych@gmail.com
140
Vitalii Gutnyk, Yaroslav Yavorskyy y Roksolana Klymkevych
The role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order
El papel del Fiscal de la Corte Penal Internacional en
el fortalecimiento del orden jurídico internacional
Resumen
El artículo examina el papel especial del Fiscal de la Corte Penal
Internacional en el fortalecimiento del orden jurídico internacional. Este
análisis se realizó a través del prisma del estudio de ciertos temas, tales
como el concepto de «Fiscal de la Corte Penal Internacional» y su lugar
en el sistema de justicia penal internacional; las facultades del Fiscal en
determinadas etapas del proceso en la Corte Penal Internacional; los
principios de estrategia y prioridad en las actividades de la Fiscalía. En la
investigación se utilizaron métodos históricos, sistémicos-estructurales,
de análisis y síntesis, comparativos legales, formal-legales y métodos
dogmáticos formales. En el artículo se llegó a la conclusión de que el Fiscal
de la Corte Penal Internacional tiene un efecto preventivo sobre los crímenes
internacionales, porque la labor del Fiscal de la Corte Penal Internacional
está dirigida no solo a castigar a los autores de crímenes internacionales,
sino también a prevenir la cometer tales delitos en el futuro. Se enfatiza que
tales actividades del Fiscal en última instancia tienen un efecto positivo en
el fortalecimiento del orden jurídico internacional.
Palabras clave: Fiscal; Fiscalía; Corte Penal Internacional; orden
jurídico internacional; crimen internacional.
Introduction
Nowadays, the place and role of international law is being reconsidered,
in particular in the context of its ability to respond to the challenges of
the XXIst century and to ensure the eective regulation of international
relations. Compared to domestic law, there is a lack of classical legislative,
judicial, and executive powers in international law. There is no single
body that is empowered to create legal norms that would be binding for all
actors of international law, as well as an appropriate system of courts with
jurisdiction over these subjects without a clear expression of their will. This
determines the peculiarity of international justice.
Among the bodies of international justice, a special place is occupied
by international criminal courts. International criminal courts and
tribunals, according to an idea of their creators, should become bodies
thatadministerjusticetopersonswhoareparticularlydeantinviolating
international law, committing the most serious crimes of concern to the
world community. At the same time, criminal prosecution is carried out
against any person, regardless of possible immunities and status in society.
Moreover, international criminal courts and tribunals were essentially
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setuptoensurethatsenior ocials did notescaperesponsibilityforthe
committed crimes, given their special status in country.
The current stage of development of international criminal justice
is associated with the establishment and activity of the permanent
International Criminal Court (hereinafter - ICC). The ICC is the permanent
body empowered to exercise jurisdiction over those responsible for the
most serious crimes of concern to the international community. The Court
operates on the basis of a multilateral treaty – the Rome Statute of the
International Criminal Court, that was adopted on 17 July 1998 and entered
into force on 1 July 2002.
The reasons for the establishment of the ICC are outlined in the preamble
oftheRomeStatuteoftheICC(1998).Inparticular,intherstpointofthe
preamble, it is noted that “the States Parties to this Statute, Conscious that
all peoples are united by common bonds, their cultures pieced together in a
shared heritage, and concerned that this delicate mosaic may be shattered
at any time. The preamble further states that “during this century millions
of children, women and men have been victims of unimaginable atrocities
that deeply shock the conscience of humanity”, “such grave crimes threaten
the peace, security and well-being of the world and the most serious
crimes of concern to the international community as a whole must not
go unpunished. That is, based on the preamble, the connection between
the creation of the ICC and the need to ensure international legal order
becomes obvious.
The IСС, given its organizational structure, rules and procedures of
activity, especially the election of judges, the ICC Prosecutor and his
deputies,theSecretaryandotherocials,thepeculiaritiesoffundingand
relations with the UN, allows us to speak of its institutional independence.
This, in turn, is a prerequisite for an independent and impartial proceeding.
Therefore, if the ICC prosecutes any high-ranking ocials, there is no
doubt that such prosecution is not political in nature. Of course, there are
still some problems with the ICC’s cooperation with both the States Parties
to the Rome Statute and other states, which is the biggest obstacle to the
administration of justice before the ICC (The Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan
Ahmad Al Bashir, 2018).
On the other hand, it should be noted that, compared to national
authorities, the ICC has a much better reputation and credibility for its
criminal proceedings. Because if national authorities prosecute their former
high-rankingocials,itraisestheissue of possible political persecution. In
turn,thismakesitdiculttoputthemontheinternationalwantedlistby
issuing an Interpol warrant. There are no questions about possible political
motives in criminal proceedings in the ICC.
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Vitalii Gutnyk, Yaroslav Yavorskyy y Roksolana Klymkevych
The role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order
Moreover, the principle of depoliticization is the main guarantee of the
eective functioning of international criminal justice and excludes any
inuenceoffactorswithapoliticalcomponentthatarewithinthestates.
A special place among the ICCbodiesisoccupiedbytheOceofthe
Prosecutor headed by the ICC Prosecutor. It is this body that can launch a
mechanism of criminal prosecution in the ICC (Wenqi, 2006). However, it
seems that its functions should be considered in the light of the goal of the
ICC - not only to punish for international crimes but also to prevent the
commission of new crimes in the future (Gutnyk, 2017).
This article has been solving the following tasks:
todene the concept of “theICC Prosecutor” andits place in the
system of ICC organs.
tondoutthespecicfeaturesof the powers of the Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court at certain stages of the proceedings.
to identify the principles of strategies and priorities in the work of
the IСС Prosecutor.
to characterize the contribution of the Prosecutor of the International
Criminal Court to the prevention of international crimes.
1. Literature Review
The legal status of the ICC Prosecutor has been the subject of research
by a number of scholars. In particular, V. Roben researched the status
and function of the Prosecutor of the ICC. Prosecutorial independence in
the Rome statute, prosecutorial discretion, modes of accountability, the
legitimacy of the prosecutor, and a call for prosecutorial guidelines were
analyzedbyA.M.Danner.Z.Wenqiexploredthespecicsofcooperation
with states not party to the ICC. S. Grover researched “prosecuting
international crimes and human rights abuses committed against children”.
However, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in the
pointofviewofhis/herinuenceinstrengtheningtheinternationallegal
orderhasnotbeenthesubjectofseparatescienticresearchuntilthistime.
2. Methodology
This article has been devoted to analyzing of the role of Prosecutor of the
International Criminal Court in strengthening the international legal order.
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The study was made through the analysis of international law doctrine,
legal documents of the ICC and the practice of the ICC. The focus is on
thedeterrenteectoftheIССProsecutor’sworkonthepreventionofnew
international crimes.
The subjects of the research were norms of the Rome Statute, internal
legaldocuments of theOce of the Prosecutorof the ICCas well as the
practice of the ICC. The subject study is theinuenceoftheICC Prosecutor
on the international legal order.
In the article were used historical, system-structural, analysis and
synthesis, comparative legal, formal-legal and formal dogmatic methods.
3. The concept of «the ICC Prosecutor» and its place in the
system of ICC organs
The system of international criminal justice, having absorbed the best
standards of the national criminal process, has not refused from borrowing
theinstitutionoftheprosecutor’soce.Moreover,theprosecution,based
on the functions assigned to it by the world community, in the system of
international criminal justice is a priority (The Prosecutor v. Stankovic,
2005).
The Statute of the ICC, the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the ICC,
theRegulationsoftheICC,theRegulationsoftheOceoftheProsecutor,
the ICC Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities, as well as other ICC
internal documents repeatedly mention the Prosecutor.
The analysis of the above-mentioned documents allows us to conclude
that the term «Prosecutor» is used in two meanings:
1)fortheocial-theheadoftheICCProsecutor’sOce(see,forexample,
article 42 (2-9), articles 45-49 of the ICC Statute); 2) for all persons who
workintheProsecutor’sOce- and whose powers include powers related
to the investigation and criminal prosecution (see, for example, articles 53-
56, articles 61, articles 65-66, article 68, article 72, article 76, articles 81-
84 of the ICC Statute). Therefore, the legal status of the ICC Prosecutor is
notlimitedtohisproceduralpowersintheeldofcriminalprosecution;it
includeshisauthoritytomanagetheOceoftheProsecutor,cooperation
(on his own behalf) with states and international organizations, etc.
To dene the role of the ICC Prosecutor in strengthening the
internationallegalorder,itisrstofallneedtodeterminetheplaceofthe
ICCProsecutor’sOceinthesystemofICCorgans,aswellastoestablish
its structure and powers.
144
Vitalii Gutnyk, Yaroslav Yavorskyy y Roksolana Klymkevych
The role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order
OneofthefourmainorgansoftheIССistheOceoftheProsecutor.
Thisorgan,giventhetasksassignedtoit,playsakeyroleintheIССsystem
(Danner, 2003; Novak, 2015; Nerida, 2016).TheProsecutor’sOceheaded
by the ICC Prosecutor can launch a prosecution mechanism (Wenqi, 2006).
In accordance with paragraph 1 of Art. 42 of the ICC Statute the Prosecutor’s
Ocehasthreegroupsoftasks:toobtainandstudyanyinformationabout
crimes under the jurisdiction of the ICC, conducting investigations and
prosecutions.
ThedetailedlistofpowersoftheProsecutor’sOceasaseparatebodyof
the ICC is not contained in the Statute, the Regulations of the Prosecutor’s
Oce,oranyotherinternalactoftheICC.Suchpowerscanbeidentied
only by generalizing the powers of its structural bodies.
An analysis of the Regulations of the Prosecutor’s Oce allows us to
conclude that the Prosecutor’s Oce has the following organizational
structure: the Executive Committee, divisions, sections and the Gender and
ChildrenUnit.TheProsecutor’sOceismanagedbytheICCProsecutor,
who may have one or more deputies. Let’s consider the competence of these
bodies more detailed.
The Executive Committee is responsible for developing and adopting the
strategy,policyandbudgetoftheOce,providingstrategicguidanceand
coordinatingtheactivitiesoftheOce.TheExecutiveCommitteeconsists
of the Prosecutor and the heads of the divisions.
The Prosecutor’s Oce consists of three divisions: the Jurisdiction,
Complementarity and Cooperation Division, the Investigation Division
and the Prosecution Division, each of which is the subject of a separate
regulationoftheRegulationsoftheProsecutor’sOce.
An analysis of the Regulations of the Prosecutor’s Oce allows us
to conclude that the Division of Jurisdiction, Complementarity and
Cooperation performs three functions: assessment and verication of
information on the possibility of conducting an investigation; conducting
analysis and providing recommendations on matters of jurisdiction;
providing recommendations for cooperation.
The Investigation Division is tasked with: preparing the necessary
security programs and protection policies in each case to ensure the safety
ofvictims,witnesses,Ocesta,andthoseatriskduetotheirinteraction
withtheIСС,etc.;conductinganinvestigativeexamination;preparation
andcoordinationofthesphereofactivityoftheOcesta; establishing
the circumstances of the crime and analyzing information and evidence in
support of the initial investigative actions, investigation and prosecution.
The Investigation Division includes investigative teams that involve
consultantswithprofessionalknowledgeinareassuchasmilitaryaairs,
politics and economics (Wenqi, 2006).
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The Prosecution Division is responsible for providing legal advice
on issues that arise during the investigation and may aect future trial
proceedings; preparation of a trial strategy for review and approval by the
Executive Committee and their subsequent implementation in the ICC
Chambers; conduct the prosecution in the ICC Chambers; coordination and
cooperation with the ICC Registrar on related issues in trial proceedings.
Thus,theworkofoneofthedivisionsoftheProsecutor’sOceisaimed
atfulllingeachofthetasksprovidedforinparagraph1ofArticle42ofthe
ICC Statute.
The structure of the Prosecutor’s Oce includes two sections: the
Services section and the Section of legal advisers
(RegulationsoftheOce
of the Prosecutor, 2009); Sections perform ancillary functions.
AseparatebodyoftheProsecutor’sOceistheGenderandChildren
Unit, which provides assistance to victims of gender-based violence and
violence against children during the investigation and trial of cases at the
ICC (Grover, 2009).
Hence, the organizational structure of the ICC Prosecutor’s Oce is
quite broad, due to the fact that the tasks of the ICC Prosecutor are much
widerthaninnationallegalsystems,includingthoserelatedtothespecics
of international crimes and their prevention in the future.
TheProsecutorandhisdeputiesmustbecitizensofdierentcountries.
Interestingly, the ICC does not prohibit the same citizenship for judges
and prosecutors. The latter provision, according to W. Schabas, provoked
heated discussions during the development of the Rome Statute of the ICC,
as this norm allows for the possibility of combining prosecution and trials
by representatives of the same state (Schabas, 2011).
4. Powers of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court
at certain stages of the proceedings
An analysis of the ICC Statute and the Rules of Procedures and Evidence
allows us to conclude that the Prosecutor has broad powers at each stage
of criminal proceedings. However, it appears that the Prosecutor has the
broadest powers at the pre-trial stages.
Information on crimes falling within the Court’s jurisdiction shall be
transmitted to the ICC Prosecutor. In accordance with paragraph 2 of
Article 15 of the ICC Statute, the Prosecutor assesses the seriousness of such
information. He may request additional information from States, the United
Nations bodies, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations or
from other sources as it deems appropriate. If he considers that there are
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Vitalii Gutnyk, Yaroslav Yavorskyy y Roksolana Klymkevych
The role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order
sucientgroundstoinitiateaninvestigation,heshallapplytothePre-Trial
Chamber to authorize the investigation. The latter, having examined the
materials provided, may authorize or refuse the investigation. However,
even such a refusal does not prevent the Prosecutor, in the presence of new
facts or evidence, from re-applying to the Pre-Trial Chamber for a sanction
for the investigation.
After authorizing the investigation, the Prosecutor proceeds directly
to the investigation itself. At the same time, he equally investigates the
circumstances that indicate both the guilt and innocence of the person.
ThepowersoftheProsecutorduringtheinvestigationaredenedinArt.
54 (3) of the ICC Statute, according to which the Prosecutor shall: “a) collect
and examine evidence; b) request the presence of and question persons
being investigated, victims and witnesses; c) Seek the cooperation of any
State or intergovernmental organization or arrangement in accordance with
its respective competence and/or mandate; d) enter into such arrangements
or agreements, not inconsistent with this Statute, as may be necessary to
facilitate the cooperation of a State, intergovernmental organization or
person; e) agree not to disclose, at any stage of the proceedings, documents
orinformationthattheProsecutorobtainsontheconditionofcondentiality
and solely for the purpose of generating new evidence, unless the provider
of the information consents; and f) take necessary measures, or request that
necessarymeasuresbetaken,toensurethecondentialityofinformation,
the protection of any person or the preservation of evidence”.
Upon completion of the investigation, Pre-Trial Chamber shall hold a
hearingtoconrmthecharges,onthebasisofwhichtheProsecutorwill
request a trial. During such a hearing, in accordance with paragraph 5
of Article 61 of the ICC Statute, the Prosecutor supports the charge with
evidence sucient «to establish substantial grounds to believe that the
person committed the crime charged».
After the conrmation of the charges, the case is on trial. It should
be noted that Part 6 of the ICC Statute («The trial») does not contain a
separate article on the powers of the Prosecutor during the trial. His powers,
according to V. Roben, are similar to those he has during the investigation
(Roben, 2003). The Prosecutor supports the charges in the Trial Chamber.
To do this, he must present the facts and provide evidence that proves the
guilt of the accused in the crime (Roben, 2003).
With regard to the stage of the appellate proceedings, in accordance
with art. 81 (1)(a) of the ICC Statute, “the Prosecutor may make an appeal
on any of the following grounds: (i) Procedural error, (ii) Error of fact,
or (iii) Error of law”. The prosecutor has the right to appeal the sentence
on the basis of the disproportion of the sentence to the crime committed.
InterestingisthepoweroftheProsecutortoleanappealonbehalfofthe
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convicted under Article 81 (1) (b) of the ICC Statute, according to which,
“the convicted person, or the Prosecutor on that person’s behalf, may make
an appeal on any of the following grounds: (i) Procedural error, (ii) Error
offact,(iii)Erroroflaw,or(iv)Anyothergroundthataectsthefairness
or reliability of the proceedings or decision. This situation may cause
confusion because the prosecution and the defence are opposite parties in
theprocess.Itseems,thisprovisionisenshrinedintheStatutetoconrm
the position of the Prosecutor not only as a party to the proceedings but also
as a body acting in the interests of justice.
TheIСС Statuteand the Rules of Procedure and Evidenceof the ICC
do not contain a separate article on the powers of the Prosecutor during
the proceedings of the case in the Appeals Chamber. However, based on
the fact that in accordance with rule 149 of the ICC Rules of Procedure
and Evidence «parts 5 and 6 and rules governing proceedings and the
submission of evidence in the Pre-Trial and Trial Chambers shall apply
mutatis mutandis to proceedings in the Appeals Chamber», the Prosecutor
has powers similar to those he has during the pre-trial and trial.
The next stage of the proceedings is the stage of revision. The Prosecutor
hastherighttoasktheAppealsChambertoreviewthenal decision on
conviction or sentencing. However, in this case, in accordance with
paragraph 1 of Article 84 of the Rome Statute of the ICC, the prosecutor
has the right to request a revision only on behalf of the convicted, but not as
the prosecution. Such a request for revision in accordance with art. 84 (1)
of the ICC Statute, maybeledonthefollowinggrounds:“a) new evidence
has been discovered that: (i) was not available at the time of trial, and such
unavailability was not wholly or partially attributable to the party making
application;and(ii)issucientlyimportantthathaditbeenprovedattrial
itwouldhavebeenlikelytohaveresultedinadierentverdict;b)ithas
been newly discovered that decisive evidence, taken into account at trial
andupon which the convictiondepends, was false, forgedor falsied; c)
oneormoreofthejudgeswhoparticipatedinconvictionorconrmation
of the charges has committed, in that case, an act of serious misconduct
orseriousbreachofdutyofsucientgravitytojustifytheremovalofthat
judgeorthosejudgesfromoceunderarticle46”.
The ICC Chamber revising the sentence shall exercise, mutatis mutandis,
all the powers of the Trial Chamber in accordance with Part 6 and the
rules governing the examination and presentation of evidence in the Pre-
Trial Chamber and the Trial Chamber. Consequently, in the revision of a
sentence, the Prosecutor has, mutatis mutandis, the same powers as in the
proceedings before the Pre-Trial Chamber and the Trial Chamber.
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The role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order
5. Discussion
The ICC Prosecutor has broad powers at every stage of the ICC
proceedings, but the question arises: what is the strategic purpose of
the Prosecutor’s work? It seems that such a strategic goal, based on the
functions of the Prosecutor and the purpose of the ICC, is prevention -
to avoid committing new international crimes, which in turn aects the
strengthening of international law and order.
The role of the ICC Prosecutor can be analyzed based on the strategic
directions of its activities, which are contained in the Prosecutor’s Strategy
(strategic plan) and which are de facto the principles and directions of the
Prosecutor’sOce.Itwasdeveloped(adopted)vetimes–in 2006 (Report
on Prosecutorial Strategy, 2006), 2010 (Prosecutorial Strategy 2009 – 2012,
2010), 2013 (Strategic plan June 2012-2015, 2013), 2015 (The strategic plan
oftheOceoftheProsecutor 2016 – 2018, 2015) and 2019 (The strategic
planoftheOceoftheProsecutor 2019-2021, 2019) – for a period of three
years.For therst time, the main directions of the prosecutor’s strategy
were contained in the Report on the Prosecutorial Strategy of September
14,2006.NowtheactivitiesoftheProsecutor’sOcearecarriedoutonthe
basis of the Strategic plan 2019-2021.
According to the Strategic Plan 2019-2021, the following mission of the
ICCProsecutor’sOceisdened:
Complementary to national jurisdictions and in full respect of the jurisdictional
regime, the mission of the Oce of the Prosecutor embraces the eective and
ecientconductofpreliminaryexaminations,investigationsandprosecutionsof
the perpetrators of the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes,
and the crime of aggression, so as to help end impunity for the commission of such
crimes,respondtothesueringofvictimsand communitiesaectedbythem,and
thus contribute to their prevention in the future(ThestrategicplanoftheOceof
the Prosecutor, 2019: 56).
Thatis,alltheworkoftheProsecutorandhisOceisdirectedto help
endimpunityforthecommissionofsuchcrimes,respondtothesuering
ofvictimsandcommunitiesaectedbythem,andthuscontributetotheir
prevention in the future”. The prosecutor performs his functions on the
basis of the principle of positive complementarity, which is a compromise
between the duty of the state to bear primary responsibility for bringing
perpetrators to justice in its territory and the activities of the ICC (Pichon,
2008). The Oce of the Prosecutor shall commence its activities in the
territory of the State only in cases where such State is unwilling or unable
toconducteectivecriminalproceedings.
Therefore, because one of the goals of the ICC is to prevent future
international crimes, ensure peace and security (Doria, 2010), the Oce
hasapreventiveinuenceineveryareaofitsactivities,frompreliminary
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examination to sentencing (Report on Prosecutorial Strategy, 2006;
Prosecutorial Strategy 2009 – 2012, 2010). Crimes under the jurisdiction of
the ICC are committed by large groups of persons or organizations and are
accompanied by careful planning of such crimes. A simple announcement
of the activities of the ICC, monitoring of situations can have a preventive
eectonthecommissionofsuchcrimes.
TheICCProsecutor’sOcehascertainhumanandnancialresources,
and therefore the priority of the materials received by the ICC needs to be
determined (Politi and Gioia, 2008). Such issues in the ICC Prosecutor’s
OceareregulatedonthebasisofthePolicypaperoncaseselectionand
prioritization, 15 September 2016 (Policy paper on case selection and
prioritisation, 2016). This Policy paper sets out the criteria for the exercise
of prosecutorial discretion in the selection and prioritization of cases in
investigationsandprosecutions.Itdenesthepoliciesandpracticesofthe
OceoftheProsecutorregardingtheprocessofselectingincidents,persons
and acts to be investigated and prosecuted in a particular situation, as well
asthe identication ofpriority situations (Policy paper on case selection
and prioritisation, 2016).
Itshouldbeemphasizedthatthispriorityisquiteexible.Inparticular,
as emphasized in the Policy paper, the selection of cases and the setting
of priorities should be regularly updated on the basis of information and
evidence obtained during the investigation of any ongoing crimes and
the development of operational conditions that may aect the Oce of
the Prosecutor’s ability to succeed in investigation and prosecution. It
is important that «as part of this process, not only could a selection or
prioritisation decision need to be revisited over time, the case hypothesis
itself may need to be adjusted to take into account the evidence that has
been collected. As such, case selection and prioritisation, as well as the
preparation of the overall Case Selection Document, should be considered
adynamicprocessthatseekstocontinuallyrenethefocusoftheOce’s
investigations until such time as an article 58 application is made(Policy
paper on case selection and prioritisation, 2016).
TheOceoftheProsecutor,inaccordance withpara.24ofthePolicy
paper, must ensure that cases selected for priority investigation and
prosecution fall within the jurisdiction of the Court; that they be acceptable
intermsofcomplementarityandseverity;andthattheydonotconictwith
the interests of justice (Policy paper on case selection and prioritisation,
2016).
Pursuant to para.34 of the Policy paper, the Oce of the Prosecutor
selects a case for investigation and prosecution in view of the gravity of the
crimes, the degree of responsibility of the alleged criminals and the potential
charges. The weight given to each criterion should depend on the facts and
circumstances of each case, each situation and the stage of development of
the investigation (Policy paper on case selection and prioritisation, 2016).
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Vitalii Gutnyk, Yaroslav Yavorskyy y Roksolana Klymkevych
The role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in strengthening the international
legal order
Conclusion
Thus, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court is entrusted
with very important tasks, which are primarily aimed at prosecuting those
responsible for committing the most serious crimes of concern to the entire
world community. For states where the justice system is inecient, this
is the only way to punish those who have committed such crimes, despite
their immunities and status in society. International criminal justice also
hasadeterrenteectonthecommitting of new international crimes and, as
a consequence, aims to ensure the sustainability of the international legal
order.
TheICCProsecutorexercisespreventiveinuenceineveryareaofhis
/heractivity,frompreliminaryvericationofinformation,investigation,
trial to sentencing. Crimes falling within the jurisdiction of the Court are
committed by large groups of persons or organizations and are accompanied
by careful planning of such crimes. Even informing about the activities of the
ICC,monitoringsituationscanhaveapreventiveeectonthecommitting
of crimes in the future.
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