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Vol.39 N° 69
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Vol. 39, Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre) 2021, 735-755
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Recibido el 14//04/2021 Aceptado el 20/06/2021
Legal regulation of practices of the
police as an entity in charge of preventing
and combating corruption in Ukraine
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.3969.46
Lina M. Tovpyha *
Igor D. Pastukh **
Tetiana Yu. Tarasevych ***
Serhii V. Bondar ****
Oksana V. Ilina *****
Abstract
This article deals with the legal regulation of the practices of
the police as an entity responsible for preventing and combating
corruption. The study shows that corruption is becoming
increasingly widespread, creating major obstacles to the
comprehensive development of the economy and national security
of any state. The objectives of this study were to clarify the problematic
aspects of the legal regulation of police practices as an entity responsible
for preventing corruption, to identify positive international experience in
this area and to clarify its implementability in Ukraine. The corruption
perceptions index regression analysis method was applied in 12 dierent
countries around the world for 2018 and 2019. On the basis of the analysis,
the authors propose to amend Ukrainian legislation with regard to the
denition of the legal status of police practices as an entity responsible for
preventing and combating corruption at the level of Ukrainian legislation,
detailing the powers of the National Police as a specially authorized entity
in the eld of preventing and combating corruption in the Ukrainian Law
“On the National Police”.
* Lecturer, Department of Theory of State and Law, National Academy of Internal Aairs. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0625-1188. Email: linesheane@gmail.com
** PhD in Law, Associate Professor, Head of Department of public management and administration,
National Academy of Internal Aairs. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5889-7055. Email:
igordp77@gmail.com
*** PhD in Law, Head of Department of Criminal Law and Procedure, Kyiv University of Law the National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3860-9909. Email:
loginova67@ukr.net
**** Researcher of Department for the Organization of Scientic Activities and Protection of Intellectual
Property Rights, National Academy of Internal Aairs. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-
0497-4457. Email: sergii02021984@gmail.com
***** PhD in Law, Associate Professor of Department of Criminal Law Politics and Criminal Law, Taras
Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8933-6368. Email:
221.85.71@ukr.net
736
Lina M. Tovpyha, Igor D. Pastukh, Tetiana Yu. Tarasevych, Serhii V. Bondar y Oksana V. Ilina
Legal regulation of practices of the police as an entity in charge of preventing and combating
corruption in Ukraine
Keywords: legal regulation; police practices; prevention subject; combat
subject; corruption.
Regulación legal de las prácticas de la policía como
entidad encargada de prevenir y combatir la corrupción
en Ucrania
Resumen
Este artículo trata sobre la regulación legal de las prácticas de la
policía como entidad encargada de prevenir y combatir la corrupción. El
estudio muestra que la corrupción se está generalizando cada vez más,
creando importantes obstáculos para el desarrollo integral de la economía
y la seguridad nacional de cualquier estado. Los objetivos de este estudio
fueron aclarar los aspectos problemáticos de la regulación legal de las
prácticas de la policía como entidad encargada de prevenir la corrupción,
identicar la experiencia internacional positiva en esta área y aclarar su
implementabilidad en Ucrania. Se aplicó el método de análisis de regresión
del Índice de Percepción de la Corrupción en 12 países diferentes del mundo
para 2018 y 2019. Sobre la base del análisis, los autores proponen modicar
la legislación de Ucrania con respecto a: la denición de la condición
jurídica de las prácticas de la policía como entidad encargada de prevenir
y combatir la corrupción a nivel de la legislación ucraniana; detallando los
poderes de la Policía Nacional como entidad especialmente autorizada en
el campo de la prevención y lucha contra la corrupción en la Ley de Ucrania
«Sobre la Policía Nacional”.
Palabras clave: regulación legal; prácticas policiales; sujeto de
prevención; sujeto de combate; corrupción.
Introduction
Today, society needs protection from corruption more than ever
(Søreide, 2019). The problem of combating corruption eectively is one
of the most acute and dicult challenges (Rybak, 2011). Corruption is
recognized by the world community as a threat to development as a whole
(Kohler and Bowra, 2020). It largely aects the vast majority of countries
and has a negative socio-economic impact (Tacconi and Williams, 2020).
Corruption hinders economic growth and distorts government eorts to
promote development (Lodge, 2019).
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 735-755
All countries without exception are concerned about the existence
and spread of a destructive phenomenon of corruption, which harms the
activities of public authorities, slows down economic development and
distorts the consciousness of society. As a result, each country implements
its own anti-corruption program, strategy or policy (Khabarova, 2019).
It is worth noting that some countries, in particular Croatia, have some
achievements in this area (Norton Rose Fulbright, 2017). Progress is
especially noticeable in Denmark, Poland and Lithuania.
Corruption, being one of the strong words, carries a striking power.
Various ways to eradicate it — from changing the Constitution to establishing
extrajudicial institutions — have not been fully successful. Corruption
continues to strengthen its position (Raharjo, 2017). Combating is not easy
(Holmes, 2020). There is, however, power that strengthens anti-corruption
regulations in conjunction with regulations aimed at addressing this issue
indirectly, such as competition supervision, nancial supervision and
anti-money laundering instruments. In particular, an appropriate system
of law enforcement agencies has been introduced for the implementation
of legal instruments to combat corruption. The police have an important
place among those law enforcement agencies. Preventing and combating
corruption is one of the police’s functions.
At the same time, it should be noted that the spread of corruption
among police ocers is no exception. Of all oenses committed by police
44% are corruption-based. Moreover, statistics from the Department of
the Interior also show that more than 50% of ocers who committed a
crime had served less than 10 years. This further raises the issue of nding
eective mechanisms to prevent and combat corruption, which primarily
determines the need to develop appropriate legal support.
This issue is especially relevant for Ukraine. After all, despite the fact
that corruption is a stable and objective phenomenon for many countries,
in Ukraine it has reached the level that threatens the very existence of
statehood. A web of corruption is, in fact, becoming a parallel system of
governance, where various issues are resolved on the basis of the business
interests of the most powerful oligarchs instead of being resolved by law
(Durdynets et al., 2020). At the same time, Ukraine’s integration into the
world economy forces it to adhere to international standards and rules
(Lutsenko, 2019). Overcoming the phenomenon of corruption is an integral
condition of our country’s European integration policy.
In accordance with the above issues, the research objective is to clarify
the problematic aspects of the legal regulation of practices of the police
as an entity in charge of preventing and combating corruption, identify
positive foreign experience in this area and ascertain its implementability
in Ukraine. Fullling these objectives will allow making proposals to
improve the quality of legal regulation of the said public relations, as well
as identifying shortcomings of the police powers execution in this area.
738
Lina M. Tovpyha, Igor D. Pastukh, Tetiana Yu. Tarasevych, Serhii V. Bondar y Oksana V. Ilina
Legal regulation of practices of the police as an entity in charge of preventing and combating
corruption in Ukraine
The scope of the article is to improve the legal regulation of practices of
the police as an entity in charge of preventing and combating corruption.
1. Literature review
The public danger of corruption is too high. It is well known that
corruption threatens the rule of law, democracy, and human rights,
undermines the foundations of good governance, violates the principles
of equality and social justice, distorts competition, hinders economic
development, threatens the stability of democratic institutions and public
morals (Lobazova, 2019).
The EU citizens recognize the gravity of corruption as a social and
political pathology: 72% of EU residents agree that corruption is a serious
problem in their country. More than 9 out of 10 Greek (94%), Czech (93%),
Hungarian (93%), Portuguese (91%) and Slovenian (91%) citizens share this
concern about corruption. Similarly, 88% of Poles agree that corruption
is a serious problem, while 76% believe that preventing and combating
international corruption will be more eective if it is adopted at the system
level of the European Union rather than at the level of independent states
(Gadowska, 2010).
Transparency International’s largest Global Corruption Barometer
survey, with about 114,000 respondents in 107 countries, conrms that
bribery is a serious global problem. Moreover, one in four respondents
reported paying a bribe in the last twelve months. At the same time, most
respondents consider their governments’ eorts in combating the problem
ineective, and in most countries citizens report that there are now more
cases of corruption than before (Edelman, 2016).
The situation has worsened in recent years, which has been reected
in the deterioration of the Corruption Perceptions Index (Siddiquee
and Zafarullah, 2020). Corruption has become a systemic problem that
harms the most resilient public institutions, forcing the government to
stop fullling its obligations to society and to full only paid obligations
to various inuence groups and elites. This situation rejects and hinders
the transparency of the state machinery, the decision-making process, the
predictability of the investment climate and economic development. In
turn, this leads to inevitable economic and social losses (Durdynets et al.,
2020).
The main causes of corruption are: lack of any anti-corruption policy
and awareness of the importance of such issues as professional ethics,
conict of interest; low wages in certain social spheres, high corporatism,
especially in the police (Truntsevskiy and Olliv’en, 2017).
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
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Researchers identify several models of institutional prevention and
combating corruption in the world. At the same time, it should be noted that
the positions of foreign and Ukrainian scholars on this issue dier. While
foreign scholars distinguish three models, Ukrainian researchers decide on
only two. Ukrainian scholars identify two fundamentally dierent options
for building anti-corruption mechanism:
1) Separation of an entity outside the law enforcement system, which is
responsible for the development, implementation of anti-corruption
policy and its coordination with anti-corruption strategies. The latter
were dictated by international requirements for combating and
preventing corruption (Lithuania, Latvia);
2) Assignment of these functions to law enforcement agencies
(Romania) (Halkina, 2019).
Foreign scholars attribute the establishment of a large number of various
anti-corruption bodies (Germany) to the rst model, while the inclusion
of combating corruption in the competence of law enforcement bodies
(Romania), the creation of a single specially authorized anti-corruption
body (Lithuania, Latvia) — to the second one (Kanan, 2019).
One of the entities in charge of preventing and combating corruption
in Ukraine is the National Police. Stable and eective functioning
of the National Police of Ukraine, as one of the entities in charge of
combating corruption, is a necessary condition for the protection of the
constitutionalism, law and order, respect for human and civil rights and
freedoms, and the eectiveness of the police stability of social development.
Successful realization of national interests and social development stability
largely depend on the eectiveness of the policing practices (Titunina and
Kirilenko, 2017).
In order to ensure the protection of human rights and freedoms, the
National Police diverts its eorts to counteract this phenomenon both
in the internal organizational activities of the central governing body of
the National Police, in territorial bodies, enterprises, institutions and
organizations belonging to its sphere of administration, and outside this
area (Shatrava, 2016).
In order to reduce the crime rate and create an eective prevention
system in the context of reforming the law enforcement system, it is
necessary, rst of all, to create an eective legal framework in this area,
as well as improve existing forms, methods and measures of preventive
activities, in particular, the police (Kovalenko, 2016). The legal status of
the police as an entity in charge of preventing and combating corruption
remains unclear at the level of national legislation, which determines the
legal background for both anti-corruption activities and policing practices
in general.
740
Lina M. Tovpyha, Igor D. Pastukh, Tetiana Yu. Tarasevych, Serhii V. Bondar y Oksana V. Ilina
Legal regulation of practices of the police as an entity in charge of preventing and combating
corruption in Ukraine
The problem of inadequate and imperfect legal regulation of practices
of the police as a subject of preventing and combating corruption through
the Law of Ukraine “On the National Police of Ukraine” is worth noting. In
particular, in terms of clearly determining the powers at the legislative level
of each entity specially authorized for combating corruption in Ukraine in
accordance with assigned functions (Zhukovska, 2018).
Interaction between anti-corruption bodies in Ukraine remains
insuciently regulated, which complicates the implementation of anti-
corruption policy. In particular, these problems are due to insucient
regulation of the activities of new bodies (Muliar and Khovpun, 2019).
We cannot disregard inadequate planning of investigations, inadequate
use of electronic surveillance, inability to question key witnesses, breaches
of condentiality and lack of timeliness. Undoubtedly, the problem is now
smaller than in the past, thanks to, for example, widespread introduction
of more eective verication practices, better education, greater use of
modern covert investigations, much more competent and dedicated internal
investigators and professionalization in general. However, the problem has
not disappeared in any case (Miller, 2014).
Besides, the fact that the police are one of the entities in charge of
combating corruption does not mean that corruption cannot exist among
the police. Despite the general increase in trust in the police and their sta,
public opinion polls over the past few years suggest that anti-corruption
eorts today need to be not only external, but also internal (within the
police units). It is obvious that corrupt law enforcement agencies are not
able to perform their tasks eectively, and this quickly poses a real threat
to the state, society and the individual (Pechegin and Prokhorova, 2017).
Accordingly, the education system, and the police ocer training
system in our case, is the most important social institution in combating
corruption. The younger generation has weakness associated with the
development of anti-corruption culture itself, so we can conclude that anti-
corruption education is needed for the younger generation to help them
form a legal consciousness to behave in line with anti-corruption provisions
(Sabila, 2020).
Professional education is the most important part of modern education,
as it forms the future specialist’s need to take into account not only
personal but also public and state interests. The existing anti-corruption
legislative framework does not allow to overcome the manifestations of
corruption without a set of activities, which include the implementation
of a psychological program of building anti-corruption culture (Klymenko,
2019).
In addition, reducing the incentives and opportunities for corruption in
the police is possible by improving their low wages and miserable working
741
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 735-755
conditions, as well as the public punishment of corrupt police ocers
(Quah, 2019).
The most eective approach to organizational and legal support
of combating corruption is one that includes criminal prosecution,
transparency of information about civil servants and individuals, as well as
the interaction of law enforcement agencies with scal authorities to identify
sources and ows of illegal support. All this requires the active participation
of civil society institutions, as only the public is able to ensure the necessary
level of transparency in the implementation of anti-corruption practices
(Durdynets et al., 2020). Anti-corruption activists, which include NGOs,
public organizations, student activists, and social media are important in
this area.
Openness of the power entities, moral and psychological rejection of
corruption by citizens, strengthening transparency and promoting the
involvement of the population in the implementation of anti-corruption
activities, that is a number of ethical (for employees) and moral (for society)
principles that prevent citizens from committing acts of corruption, cause a
decrease in corruption rates (Khabarova, 2019).
Only a comprehensive approach to tackling corruption will eradicate
negative trends and manifestations. It is reasonable to solve the problems
that have arisen both at the level of legislation, and at the level of
organization of law enforcement activities. Special attention should be paid
to the education and personality development of future law enforcement
ocers (Sebeleva, 2020).
Review of Ukrainian and foreign literature shows that scholars have
limited coverage of the legal regulation of practices of the police as an
entity in charge with preventing and combating corruption. In particular,
researchers focus mainly on the aspect of preventing and combating
corruption in general.
2. Methods and materials
Most research on preventing and combating involved methods of
statistical processing of the results. Statistical research allows revealing the
picture of corruption indicators in Ukraine and the world. More eective
models for preventing and combating corruption can be found by comparing
statistics from dierent countries and years.
Our research involved the method of regression analysis. In the rst
stage of the study, we built statistical distributions through the method
of regression analysis and developed two charts of Corruption Perception
Index (CPI) in dierent countries based on the data obtained using the
742
Lina M. Tovpyha, Igor D. Pastukh, Tetiana Yu. Tarasevych, Serhii V. Bondar y Oksana V. Ilina
Legal regulation of practices of the police as an entity in charge of preventing and combating
corruption in Ukraine
dialectical method, which reected the number of points for 2018 (Figure
1) and 2019 (Figure 2). In particular, we selected statistics on the CPI of
12 countries, including Ukraine, from a list of 180 countries providing
published data of the global ranking of corruption indices of Transparency
International for 2018 and 2019. Subsequently, the selected data were
analysed and displayed by placing on charts in alphabetical order by
country name for further comparison. The comparison revealed some
dierences in the ratings with the same list of countries but dierent years.
In the second stage of the study, the countries selected for comparison were
grouped according to the anti-corruption model and shown in Table 1. In
the third stage of the study, conclusions were drawn based on the obtained
data using the observation method, which later became the basis for the
proposals.
Corruption Perceptions Index (СРІ) is an indicator that has been
calculated by Transparency International since 1995. The organization
itself does not conduct its own surveys. The index is calculated on the basis
of 13 studies of reputable international institutions and research centres.
Ukraine’s gures we calculated on the basis of 9 sources. The Corruption
Perceptions Index is based on independent research and surveys involving
international nancial and human rights experts, including the World
Bank, Freedom House, the World Economic Forum, the Asian and African
Development Banks, etc.
Unit of measurement is a point. The key indicator of the Index is the
number of points, not the place in the ranking. The minimum score (0
points) means that corruption actually replaces the state, the maximum
(100 points) indicates that there is almost no corruption in society.
3. Results and discussion
As initial descriptive evidence, Figure 1 and Figure 2 show that the
Corruption Perception Index varies from country to country. In particular,
this is illustrated by the example of 12 countries such as: Bulgaria, Armenia,
Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Russia, Romania, Slovakia,
Hungary, Ukraine. At the same time, the picture of the Corruption
Perceptions Index in the same countries for dierent years also diers,
although not signicantly. The results obtained are shown in Figure 1 and
Figure 2.
The source data for comparison were taken from Transparency
International’s Global Corruption Index for 2018 and 2019.
30 points out of 100 possible is the result of the 2019 Corruption
Perceptions Index for Ukraine. In 2018, the indicators were equal to 32