Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.39 N° 69
Julio
Diciembre
2021
Recibido el 15/03/2021 Aceptado el 15/06/2021
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca ción aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co “Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
Hu ma nas y So cia les, a tra vés de la di vul ga ción de los re sul ta dos lo gra dos por sus in ves-
ti ga do res; es ti mu lar la in ves ti ga ción en es tas áreas del sa ber; y pro pi ciar la pre sen ta-
ción, dis cu sión y con fron ta ción de las ideas y avan ces cien tí fi cos con com pro mi so so cial.
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas apa re ce dos ve ces al año y pu bli ca tra ba jos ori gi na les con
avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
co, los cua les son so me ti dos a la con si de ra ción de ár bi tros ca li fi ca dos.
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Eduviges Morales Villalobos
Fabiola Tavares Duarte
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Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
“Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che”. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 39, Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre) 2021, 547-563
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Digitization in Law: International-
Legal Aspect
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.3969.34
Liydmyla Panova *
Liliya Radchenko **
Ernest Gramatskyy ***
Anatolii Kodynets ****
Stanislav Pohrebniak *****
Abstract
Due to the development of the information society, countries
face the task of eectively regulating the relevant social relations.
The mechanisms of such regulation should correspond to the
specics of such relations. Digitization is one of the modern
methods of legal regulation, which is the use of information
technology at the state level. The existing scientic achievements
on digitalization processes need constant improvement, which
corresponds to the specics of this eld. The object of research is digitalization
in law in the light of international experience. The article aims to study and
analyze digitalization in law in the international legal aspect. The following
methods were used during the study: systemic, systemic-functional,
comparative, sociological, analysis, synthesis, analogy, observation,
classication, and statistical analysis. The article analyzes the phenomenon
of digitalization, identies the main approaches to understanding it. On the
example of international experience (such countries as France, Germany,
Italy, Georgia, Greece, and Great Britain), the mechanisms of using
digitalization in public administration are determined, the legal regulation
of informatization is analyzed. Also, based on the study and analysis of
doctrinal teachings of international information experience, it is proposed
to improve the domestic legal mechanism to ensure the eective functioning
of public relations.
* Ph. D., Associate Professor of Civil Law Department, Institute of Law, Taras Shevchenko National
University of Kyiv, Address, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1393-8626.
E-mail: LPanova@i.ua.
** Ph. D. in Law, Associate Professor of Civil Law Department, Institute of Law, Taras Shevchenko National
University of Kyiv. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3783-9489. Email: gli@online.ua
*** Ph. D., Associate Professor of Civil Law Department, Institute of Law, Taras Shevchenko National
University of Kyiv, Address, Kyiv, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1260-2888.
**** Doctor of Legal Science, Associate Professor, Head of Intellectual Property Department of Taras
Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0954-1474.
Email: a_kodynets@ukr.net
***** Doctor of Legal Science, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory and Philosophy of Law,
Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9422-4202. Email:
s.pogrebniak@gmail.com
548
Liydmyla Panova, Liliya Radchenko, Ernest Gramatskyy, Anatolii Kodynets y Stanislav
Pohrebniak
Digitization in Law: International-Legal Aspect
Keywords: digitization; legal regulation; information society; public
administration; public relations.
Digitalización en el derecho: aspecto jurídico
internacional
Resumen
La digitalización es uno de los métodos modernos de regulación legal,
que es el uso de tecnología de la información a nivel estatal. Los logros
cientícos existentes en los procesos de digitalización necesitan una mejora
constante, que corresponde a las especicidades de este campo. El tema de
la investigación es la digitalización del derecho a la luz de la experiencia
internacional. El artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar y analizar la
digitalización en el derecho en el aspecto jurídico internacional. Durante el
estudio se utilizaron los siguientes métodos: sistémico, sistémico-funcional,
comparativo, sociológico, análisis, síntesis, analogía, observación,
clasicación y análisis estadístico. El artículo analiza el fenómeno de la
digitalización, identica los principales enfoques para comprenderlo. En el
ejemplo de la experiencia internacional (países como Francia, Alemania,
Italia, Georgia, Grecia y Gran Bretaña), se determinan los mecanismos
de uso de la digitalización en la administración pública, se analiza la
regulación legal de la informatización. Asimismo, con base en el estudio y
análisis de las enseñanzas doctrinales de la experiencia de la información
internacional, se propone mejorar el mecanismo jurídico interno para
asegurar el funcionamiento efectivo de las relaciones públicas.
Palabras clave: digitalización; regulación legal; sociedad de la
información; administración pública; relaciones
públicas.
Introduction
In today’s conditions, the priority of state activity is the digitalization of the
spheres of life of the population. This direction is due to the development of the
innovative society, digital technologies. The main trends in the development of
modern foreign informatization are the steady growth of the information technology
market, the growth of investments in informatization and the growth of prots
from innovative technology products. The development of the information industry
is associated with the use of the Internet. According to IDS experts, in 2020 the
annual growth rate of Internet costs will reach 50%. (Kolesnikov, 2012).
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International experience in implementing digitalization systems as a tool
to ensure the realization of citizens’ rights to eective, mobile, and unhindered
communication with the system of providing, in particular, public services,
protection of their interests, shows that the information policy depends on
communication, from historical factors, political and economic development, and
nancial and material resources.
Thus, the activities of the British government to improve the conditions of
competition in the data market, increase the eciency of innovative services,
and the introduction of IT in public administration. The goal of France’s national
information policy is to establish an information society, develop electronic market,
and banking, liberalize communications, update its legislation, stimulate research in
the eld of IT business, create information security systems, and prevent computer
crimes. For Italy, the characteristic features of information policy are monitoring
of the sphere of online services, improvement of intra-network quality, evaluation
of intellectual resources, the introduction of e-government, etc. (Ryabokon, 2016).
For the Scandinavian countries, the introduction of information technology
is seen in the provision of the social sphere with computer technology, access to
information in networks and systems for socially vulnerable groups, and attention
is paid to support national producers of information products (Stepanov, 2010).
The Prime Minister of Estonia Kaya Kallas spoke at the All-Ukrainian Forum
“Ukraine 30. Digitalization” about the benets of digitalization. “Currently in
Estonia, there are about 5,000 e-services in the public and private sectors, including
e-voting, e-schools, e-hubs, we have digital signatures. All this saves Estonia a lot
of time and money, “said the Prime Minister (Ukrinform, 2021).
Researchers have developed a strategy for the transformation of public services
through digitalization (HiTech Oce, 2016).:
providing a system of recruitment of civil servants and lawyers based
on skills in digital technologies.
the use of social networks and communications to actively involve
citizens in political processes.
empowering citizens to participate in their own use of the concept
of open data, according to which particular data should be free for
use and dissemination by any person (subject to compliance with the
relevant rules).
the introduction of electronic identication to create a secure space
that provides citizens with access to necessary resources or services.
It is also considered useful to manage smart machines and tools as
an improvement of existing methods of doing business and creating new
public services. Such new services should include, for example, automatic
emergency notication systems, voice services of public contact centers,
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Liydmyla Panova, Liliya Radchenko, Ernest Gramatskyy, Anatolii Kodynets y Stanislav
Pohrebniak
Digitization in Law: International-Legal Aspect
various intellectual applications to facilitate bureaucratic interaction with
government agencies.
One of the achievements of the digitalization process in the legal and
state spheres is the blockchain, which is considered eective in such areas
as notaries, stock exchanges, justice, personal identication, etc. Blockchain
is a technology of a distributed peer-to-peer public network that can store
information about transactions permanently and without the possibility
of its change and which is protected by cryptographic means. Blockchain
networks can provide many options for dierent purposes, especially
in the public sector: electronic referendums, e-petitions, e-voting, and
e-government. Blockchain provides an unprecedented level of information
protection and allows you to create fully decentralized systems. The high
resistance of the system to attacks allows its use in such sensitive areas as
e-nance, public procurement, and e-budgets (Lopushytsky, 2018).
1. Theoretical framework
To comprehensively study the digitization of law, taking into account
international experience, some regulations, scientic articles, monographs
and statistics were studied and analyzed.
The works by the following scientists are devoted to the study of
digitalization: Kolesnikov (2012), Tronko (2017), Lopushytsky (2018),
Cherednichenko and Baranovska (2021), Kolyadenko (2016), Golovko and
Dubenets (2020), Kartsikhia (2018), Chukut and Poliarna (2016), Melnyk
(2012), and Verlos (2020).
The denition of the essence of digitalization is examined in the articles
of Cherednichenko and Baranovska (2021) “Digitalization of public
administration”; Petrenko and Mashkovska (2020) Digitalization of
state administrative services in Ukraine: regulatory aspects”; Kolyadenko
(2016) “Digital Economy: Prerequisites and Stages of Formation in Ukraine
and the World”; Lopushytsky (2018) “Digitalization as a basis for public
administration on the path of transformation and reform of Ukrainian
society”; Golovko and Dubenets (2020) “The role of digitalization of state
services in legal relations with a foreign element”. Thus, the denition of
digitalization is reduced to the use of digital technologies in most spheres
of public life.
The study of international experience in the implementation of
information technology in the legal system has become possible through
the study of the digitalization process in countries such as Britain, France,
Germany, Italy, Georgia, Greece, and Estonia. The following works are
devoted to this area: “State policy in the eld of the information society
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in France: prospects for Ukraine” by Melnyk (2012); “Selected decisions
of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany” by Crawford (2018). In
addition, in this direction was normative documents regulating digital
rights, mechanisms of public administration with the use of information
technologies were applied. In particular, such documents are the Policy
Recommendations of the European Commission 2019-2024 (Leyen,
2019) (the use of articial intelligence), the United Nations E-Government
Survey (United Nations, 2021) (UN study on the level of e-government
development in dierent countries), the Constitution of Greece, Georgia,
Germany, France, and Italy (consolidation of digital rights), etc.
Statistical data on the level of implementation of digital technologies in
the dierent countries is done by examining the work of Egorov and Hryha
(2019). Comparative analysis of digitalization indicators in Ukraine and
other countries of the Eastern Partnership of the EU.
The phenomenon of digitalization is a constantly evolving mechanism
for convenient and eective functioning of public life, which requires
further study in the following areas:
- digital rights of citizens in the general system of rights, their
regulation and protection.
- collection of statistical data on digitization processes.
- methods of professional training for work in the digital state, and.
- modernization of legal mechanisms for the introduction of
information technology in various spheres of society.
2. Methodology
The authors carried out their research with the help of such methods:
the systemic method, the comparative method, the method of observation,
and the methods of analysis and synthesis.
Thus, the systemic method as a general scientic method was used
in the consistent study of structural links between the achievements of
foreign countries in the eld of digitalization of public relations and public
administration. Also using the specied method, the available digital rights
were dened and systematized.
Furthermore, the comparative method helped to compare foreign
experience in the implementation of digitalization and highlight its positive
features, which are considered appropriate to use in building a domestic
system of legal services.
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Pohrebniak
Digitization in Law: International-Legal Aspect
Moreover, the method of observation was used to determine the
dynamics of the object of study. Thus, gradual diversication of information
processes that took place due to the development of the Internet was
revealed. In this regard, a necessary element in the process of digitalization
was the development of regulations in this area, programs, and strategies
for the development of digital technologies at the state level.
The method of analysis was useful for the study of digitalization,
gradually dividing the research of the theoretical part of the object and the
practical part, which consists of the analysis of international experience in
the use of information technology. Analytical assessment of the processes
of implementation of information technologies made it possible to identify
patterns, according to which it became possible to identify certain features of
digitalization as a mechanism for ensuring eective public administration.
The method of synthesis also allowed to gather the studied theoretical and
practical aspects into a single whole to nd the most eective mechanisms
for the introduction of digitalization.
3. Results and discussion
The modern legal literature focuses on the understanding of law as a
general social phenomenon. The law is based not only on knowledge but
also on some cultural, legal values - justice, freedom, equality, etc. (Lutsky,
2013). Rule of law states (i.e. those, in which the rule of law is recognized
in all spheres of public life) the inviolability of a person’s freedom, his/
her rights, and interests, their protection and guarantee, create eective
mechanisms for regulating legal relations.
The development of technology leads to the emergence of new social
relations, and therefore there is a need for their legal regulation. At the
present stage of the development of rule of law, digitalization is a new
phenomenon. In the scientic literature, a small number of works are
devoted to this issue. In most scientic papers, digitization is considered in
the context of public administration and relates to economic activity.
Regarding the notion of the concept of digitalization, there is no single
denition. It is advisable to consider the most common interpretations.
Thus, digitalization is a multifaceted process of society’s transition to digital
technologies, which applies to all spheres of public life (Cherednichenko,
& Baranovska, 2021). It is the introduction of digital technologies in all
spheres of life:
- from the interaction between people to industrial production, and.
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- from household items to children’s toys, clothes, etc. It is the
transition of biological and physical systems into cyberbiological
and cyberphysical (combination of physical and computational
components), the transformation of activities from the real world to
the virtual world (online) (Petrenko, & Mashkovska, 2020). In the
broadest sense, digitization is a synthetic category, which means
all socio-economic processes, which are based on the use of digital
technologies (Kolyadenko, 2016).
Stepanov identies the following advantages of using information
technology in public administration:
- increasing the eciency of interdepartmental interaction.
- improving the quality of public services to the population and
organizations, and;
- coordinated personal and collective work of government ocials.
European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen (2019) (in the
European Commission’s Policy Recommendations 2019-2024) emphasizes
that “digital technologies, especially articial intelligence, are changing the
world at an unprecedented rate, and their use will help nd solutions to
societal problems from health to agriculture, from security to production”.
According to United Nations research presented in the “United Nations
E-Government Survey 2018”, there is a positive trend among 193 countries
surveyed to increase the level of e-government development. The group
with a very high index of e-government development in 2018 includes 40
countries; 71 countries to the group with a high index of e-government
development; 66 countries with a medium index and 16 countries to the
group with a low (United Nations, 2021).
To assess the digitization process in the EU, a special Digital Economy
and Society Index (DESI) has been developed, which provides information
for analysis on the following main factors (European Commission, 2019;
Pilinsky, & Veretyuk, 2015): eciency assessment, improvement, dynamics
assessment, and comparative analysis.
The level of functioning and development of digital technologies in the
countries of the Eastern Partnership of the EU can be demonstrated using
the data of the Table 1 made based on the analysis of sources (HiQStep,
2019).
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Liydmyla Panova, Liliya Radchenko, Ernest Gramatskyy, Anatolii Kodynets y Stanislav
Pohrebniak
Digitization in Law: International-Legal Aspect
Branches of
DESI
Ukraine Azerbaijan Armenia Belarus Moldova Georgia
Use of the
Internet
44 % 63 % 41 % 70 % 41 % 70 %
Providing
digital control
17 % 17 % 17 % 100 % 17 % 50 %
Digital
government
services
50 % 100 % 0 % 50 % 100 % 100 %
Integration
of digital
technologies
50 % 7 % 7 % 43 % 21 % 29 %
Table 1. The level of functioning and development of digital technologies
in the countries of the Eastern Partnership of the EU. (HiQStep, 2019).
The above statistics indicate the gradual introduction of information
technology in public policy.
Trends in the development of e-government can be traced at three levels
(Golovko, & Dubenets, 2020):
- interdepartmental in the interaction of public authorities with each
other to optimize the functioning of the administrative apparatus.
- private in partnership with the government and business entities
to reduce government spending through the use of outsourcing
technology and the creation of a transparent system of public
procurement.
- public in cooperation with the public and public authorities to
involve citizens in decision-making by the authorities, overcoming the
bureaucracy of administrative activities, and building e-democracy.
In the legal doctrine, in connection with the use of information
technology, a new type of characteristic of the provision of public services
the digital democracy of the state. According to Chukut, e-democracy
is an important component of e-government, because its main goal is to
meet the needs of citizens, achieve social values by using the benets of the
information society, overcoming such negative phenomena as corruption,
formalization of modern governance (Chukut and Poliarna, 2016).
Since legal relations are characterized by external expression, such
relations are manifested in the actions or inaction of legal entities. In turn,
the subjects of law are individuals and legal entities that are the bearers of
rights and obligations enshrined in law.
Given the above, when analyzing the process of digitization of law from
an international perspective, we should pay attention to the activities of
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legal entities in economic activities that use information technology, as the
regulatory nature is not unique to law.
Digitization in the public economic policy of Great Britain consists in:
building a world-class digital infrastructure, investing in the
development of the digital economy, accelerating the development
and use of next-generation digital infrastructure.
giving everyone access to the necessary digital skills.
developing digital business by nancing research, creating conditions
for the prosperity of the articial intelligence industry, cooperation
with research centers in other countries and with a network of
technical centers created by the UK in developing countries, and;
ensuring a high level of protection of British cyberspace, using the
potential of innovation in cybersecurity (Heeks, 2018).
Awareness of the importance of comprehensive regulation of digitization
in the UK is evidenced by the existence in this country of the Digital
Economy Act, which provides, in particular, the registration of domain
names on the Internet and how media content contributes to public service
goals, obligations to suppliers Internet services aimed at reducing copyright
infringement on the Internet, the power of the Secretary of State to obtain a
court order to block the Internet location used in connection with copyright
infringement (GOV.UK, 2017).
Relevant in the process of legal digitization is the normative consolidation
of digital rights, which will regulate the relationships that arise in the
process of human interaction during the use of information technology.
Digital rights are a separate type of human rights, which covers the
specics of the implementation and guarantees of the protection of
fundamental human rights on the Internet, including freedom of expression
and the right to privacy online. The following denitions of digital rights
can also be found in the scientic literature:
the right of citizens to access, use, create and publish digital works,
and;
the right to free access to the Internet (other communication
networks) using computers and other electronic devices (Kartsikhia,
2018).
The literature identies two ways of legislative consolidation of digital
rights: constitutional consolidation and constitutional interpretation of
existing rights given modern information development (Verlos, 2020).
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Liydmyla Panova, Liliya Radchenko, Ernest Gramatskyy, Anatolii Kodynets y Stanislav
Pohrebniak
Digitization in Law: International-Legal Aspect
At the constitutional level, digital rights have been enshrined in
countries such as Greece and Georgia. For the legislative consolidation
of such rights by interpreting certain constitutional norms in the light of
digital reality, either body of constitutional jurisdiction are used, or separate
laws regulating certain digital rights are adopted. Such countries include
Germany, France, and Italy.
According to the legislation of the above-mentioned states, the following
digital rights can be distinguished (Table 2):
Country Digital rights
Greece
the right of all persons to participate in the information
society and to facilitate access to information transmitted
in electronic form (Part 2 of Article 5A of the Greek
Constitution (2008))
Georgia
the right of everyone to access and use the Internet freely
(paragraph 4 of Article 17 of the Constitution of Georgia
(Law No. 786/1995, 1995))
France
the right to access the Internet (the Constitutional Council
of France has made amendments to the legislation on the
protection of intellectual property: the rules on the possible
automatic and extrajudicial disconnection of infringers to
the Internet are considered illegal (Decision No. 2009-580,
2009))
Germany
the right to information self-determination, to ensure the
integrity and condentiality of information technology
systems, to the secrecy of correspondence, postal items and
telecommunications (Crawford, 2018)
Italy
access to the Internet is a fundamental human right and
a condition of its full individual and social development,
everyone has an equal right to access the Internet on equal
terms with technologically adequate and modern methods
that eliminate any economic and social barriers (Article 2
of the Declaration of Rights in Internet (Internet Rights
and Duties Commission, 2015))
Table 2. The digital rights in Greece, Georgia, France, Germany, and
Italy.
For Ukraine, the creation of specialized legislation in the eld of digital
technologies and the consolidation of digital rights at the constitutional
level is considered a promising direction. In addition, the literature has
an opinion on the feasibility of developing international acts that would
regulate the eld of information technology (Shvidka, 2020).
A striking example of legal digitalization is France, where since 1998,
the Program of governmental actions of France’s entry into the information
society (Roche, 2005). France as a country with a developed digital
environment is characterized by (Melnyk, 2012):
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- the use of information technology in government.
- professional training for the eective implementation of public policy
based on the use of digital technologies.
- ensuring easy access of citizens to the government via the Internet.
- technical and legal denition of electronic signatures in the
government-citizen relationship.
- encouraging the development of administrative telework, and;
- modernization of state computer systems.
The development of e-government in France is to ensure interoperability
between management services and the availability of management sites,
expanding access to electronic payment systems, access to justice via the
Internet.
Given the experience of France, it is expedient for Ukraine to implement
measures to train ocials in the eld of information technology, take into
account knowledge in the digital sphere when enrolling in the civil service,
appropriate modernization of public computer systems, and rationalization
of public funding in the information society.
The development of information technology has led to the emergence of
means of payment on the Internet, which requires constant improvement
of legislation in this area. At the level of the European Union, the issue
of payment systems is regulated by many directives, in particular, the
Directive of the European Parliament and the Union of 2007 No. 2007/64/
EC (on payment services in the internal market), Directive of the European
Parliament and the Union No. 2009/110/Е (on the taking up, pursuit and
prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions)
(Deloitte, 2017).
Regarding the Ukrainian system of legal regulation of payment systems,
it is regulated by some Laws of Ukraine “On Payment Systems and Funds
Transfer in Ukraine” (Law No. 2346-III, 2001), “On Banks and Banking”
(Law No. 2121-III, 2000), as well as in the Law of Ukraine “On the National
Bank of Ukraine” (Law No. 679-XIV, 1999) and some other bylaws
regulations of the National Bank of Ukraine and the Cabinet of Ministers of
Ukraine. The main objectives of the legal regulation of payment systems are
to limit systemic and other risks, the protection against fraud, support the
development of eective methods of providing payment services (Institute
for Economic Research and Policy Consulting, 2010).
The main problems in the system of legal regulation of payment systems
are:
558
Liydmyla Panova, Liliya Radchenko, Ernest Gramatskyy, Anatolii Kodynets y Stanislav
Pohrebniak
Digitization in Law: International-Legal Aspect
- underdeveloped legal regulation of mechanisms for the protection of
consumers of payment systems and the companies themselves that
provide these services.
- insucient payment and nancial literacy of some categories of the
population, especially pensioners. To overcome this problem, it is
necessary to develop and publish information leaets with step-by-
step instructions on how citizens can use payment systems in their
daily calculations, and;
- international payment systems are gradually displacing domestic
ones. In this regard, it is advisable to support national enterprises
in the creation of domestic payment systems and related services
through benets for residents who wish to open their business in this
area (Dzhusov, & Pilyak, 2020).
Thus, based on the analysis of international experience in the eld of
digitalization of law, we can conclude that the system of gradual improvement
of relations arising from the use of digital rights of citizens (France, Italy,
Germany, Greece, and Georgia). For eective public administration, digital
technologies are an eective tool that requires comprehensive study and
practical testing.
Conclusions
As a result of the study of the international legal aspect of digitalization,
the following has been established in law.
1. International experience in the introduction of digitalization systems
as a tool for eective communication with the system of provision,
including and not exclusively public services, protection of interests,
shows that depending on the level of interest of a country in
integration into the global communication system, the direction of
digital state policy.
2. In the process of legal digitalization, an important role is played by
the normative consolidation of digital rights, which allows regulating
the relations that arise in the process of human interaction during
the use of information technology.
3. The main problems in the system of legal regulation of payment
systems are:
- underdeveloped legal regulation of mechanisms for the protection
of consumers of payment systems and the companies themselves
that provide these services.
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Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 547-563
- insucient payment and nancial literacy of some categories of
the population, especially pensioners. To overcome this problem,
it is necessary to develop and publish information leaets with
step-by-step instructions on how citizens can use payment
systems in their daily calculations.
- international payment systems are gradually displacing domestic
ones. In this regard, it is advisable to support national enterprises
in the creation of domestic payment systems and related services
through benets for residents who wish to open their business in
this area.
Thus, based on the analysis of international experience in the eld of
digitalization of law, we can conclude that the system of gradual improvement
of relations arising from the use of digital rights of citizens (France, Italy,
Germany, Greece, and Georgia). For eective public administration, digital
technologies are an eective tool that requires comprehensive study and
practical testing.
Regarding further scientic research, it is essential to investigate
both Ukrainian and international bills on the regulation of the digital
transformation of our country and to develop proposals for the possible
implementation of the positive experience of foreign countries in Ukrainian
legislation.
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del con te ni do del mis mo con for me a las in di ca cio nes para los co la-
bo ra do res.
8. Bi blio gra fía y fuen tes: de ben ser su mi nis tra das con cla ri dad. El eva-
lua dor to ma rá en cuen ta su per ti nen cia, ac tua li dad y cohe ren cia
con el tema de sa rro lla do.
La eva lua ción de cada uno de esos cri te rios se hará en una es ca la
que va des de ex ce len te has ta de fi cien te. El ár bi tro con clui rá con una Eva-
lua ción de acuer do al ins tru men to: pu bli ca ble, pu bli ca ble con li ge ras
mo di fi ca cio nes, pu bli ca ble con sus tan cia les mo di fi ca cio nes y no pu bli-
ca ble. Los ár bi tros de be rán ex pli car cuá les son las mo di fi ca cio nes su ge-
ri das de una ma ne ra ex plí ci ta y ra zo na da cuan do este fue ra el caso. La re-
vis ta no está obli ga da a ex pli car a los co la bo ra do res las ra zo nes del re-
cha zo de sus ma nus cri tos, ni a su mi nis trar co pias de los ar bi tra jes dado
el ca rác ter con fi den cial que ellos po seen.
154
Normas para los autores
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cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho