Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.39 N° 69
Julio
Diciembre
2021
Recibido el 22/03/2021 Aceptado el 20/06/2021
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca ción aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co “Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
En tre sus ob je ti vos fi gu ran: con tri buir con el pro gre so cien tí fi co de las Cien cias
Hu ma nas y So cia les, a tra vés de la di vul ga ción de los re sul ta dos lo gra dos por sus in ves-
ti ga do res; es ti mu lar la in ves ti ga ción en es tas áreas del sa ber; y pro pi ciar la pre sen ta-
ción, dis cu sión y con fron ta ción de las ideas y avan ces cien tí fi cos con com pro mi so so cial.
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas apa re ce dos ve ces al año y pu bli ca tra ba jos ori gi na les con
avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
co, los cua les son so me ti dos a la con si de ra ción de ár bi tros ca li fi ca dos.
ESTA PU BLI CA CIÓN APA RE CE RE SE ÑA DA, EN TRE OTROS ÍN DI CES, EN
:
Re vicyhLUZ, In ter na tio nal Po li ti cal Scien ce Abs tracts, Re vis ta In ter ame ri ca na de
Bi blio gra fía, en el Cen tro La ti no ame ri ca no para el De sa rrol lo (CLAD), en Bi blio-
gra fía So cio Eco nó mi ca de Ve ne zue la de RE DIN SE, In ter na tio nal Bi blio graphy of
Po li ti cal Scien ce, Re vencyt, His pa nic Ame ri can Pe rio di cals In dex/HAPI), Ul ri ch’s
Pe rio di cals Di rec tory, EBS CO. Se en cuen tra acre di ta da al Re gis tro de Pu bli ca cio-
nes Cien tí fi cas y Tec no ló gi cas Ve ne zo la nas del FO NA CIT, La tin dex.
Di rec to ra
L
OIRALITH
M. C
HIRINOS
P
ORTILLO
Co mi té Edi tor
Eduviges Morales Villalobos
Fabiola Tavares Duarte
Ma ría Eu ge nia Soto Hernández
Nila Leal González
Carmen Pérez Baralt
Co mi té Ase sor
Pedro Bracho Grand
J. M. Del ga do Ocan do
José Ce rra da
Ri car do Com bel las
An gel Lom bar di
Die ter Nohlen
Al fre do Ra mos Ji mé nez
Go ran Ther born
Frie drich Welsch
Asis ten tes Ad mi nis tra ti vos
Joan López Urdaneta y Nil da Ma rín
Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
“Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che”. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 39, Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre) 2021, 373-385
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Current Directions of Legal Ensuring
National Security
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.3969.23
Vadim Avdeevich Avdeev *
Olga Anatolievna Avdeeva **
Stanislav Vasilyevich Rozenko ***
Evgeny Aleksandrovich Kiselev ****
Igor Vyacheslavovich Kuleshov *****
Aleksey Vital’yevich Morozov ******
Abstract
The article reveals the problematic issues for ensuring nancial
security in the context of globalization in global nancial systems.
The modern stage of development of state nancial systems is
characterized by diculties in ensuring national nancial security.
Despite the urgency of this problem, the international community
is focusing on ensuring economic security during the formation of
universal and regional legal instruments, leaving out of sight issues of legal
and practice-oriented guidance in nancial security. The article examines
the main directions of implementation of state policy aimed at improving
the eectiveness of legal and national and international means to ensure
nancial security in the context of the globalization of growing threats to
economic security. The focus is on the modernization of legal instruments
to regulate public relations related to nancial security. Particular attention
was paid to the correlation of international legal bases, national legislation,
and regional laws. It is concluded that the development of state nancial
policy that guarantees the security of the budgetary system is fundamental.
Keywords: international legal acts; nancial security; legal policy;
nancial policy; nancial systems.
* Yugra State University, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8614-
6996. Email: vadim.avdeevich@mail.ru
** East-Siberian Institute of the Ministry of Internal Aairs of the Russia, Irkutsk, Russia. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5771-4237. Email: Avdeeva_O_A@mail.ru
*** Yugra State University, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7808-
9939. Email: s_rozenko@ugrasu.ru
**** Moscow Academy of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk, Russia.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4791-4953. Email: keajin@gmail.com
***** Yugra State University, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9073-
4192. Email: igorkulema@yandex.ru
****** Yugra State University, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5504-
9501. Email: moroan2017@yandex.ru
374
Vadim Avdeevich Avdeev, Olga Anatolievna Avdeeva, Stanislav Vasilyevich Rozenko, Evgeny
Aleksandrovich Kiselev, Igor Vyacheslavovich Kuleshov y Aleksey Vital’yevich Morozov
Current Directions of Legal Ensuring National Security
Directrices actuales para garantizar la seguridad
nacional
Resumen
El artículo revela las cuestiones problemáticas para garantizar la
seguridad nanciera en el contexto de la globalización en los sistemas
nancieros mundiales. La etapa moderna de desarrollo de los sistemas
nancieros estatales se caracteriza por las dicultades para garantizar la
seguridad nanciera nacional. A pesar de la urgencia de este problema, la
comunidad internacional se centra en garantizar la seguridad económica
durante la formación de instrumentos jurídicos de carácter universal y
regional, dejando fuera de la vista las cuestiones relativas a la orientación
jurídica y orientada a la práctica en la esfera de la seguridad nanciera.
El artículo examina las principales direcciones de implementación de
la política estatal destinada a mejorar la ecacia de los medios legales y
nacionales e internacionales para garantizar la seguridad nanciera en
el contexto de la globalización de las crecientes amenazas a la seguridad
económica. La atención se centra en la modernización de los instrumentos
jurídicos para regular las relaciones públicas relacionadas con la seguridad
nanciera. Se prestó especial atención a la correlación de los fundamentos
jurídicos internacionales, la legislación nacional y las leyes regionales. Se
concluye que el desarrollo de la política nanciera estatal que garantice la
seguridad del sistema presupuestario es fundamental.
Palabras clave: actos jurídicos internacionales; seguridad nanciera;
política jurídica; política nanciera; sistemas
nancieros.
Introduction
The relevance of the task to ensure nancial security of states is
predetermined by the current conditions for globalization in the world
economy, formalization of state borders in the international system of
capital movement. It is external threats and challenges that have a negative
impact on national economies. The conditions for strengthening economic
imbalance at present are formed by the preservation of nancial and trade
restrictions and unfavorable external economic conditions. The problems
of low level in the legal culture and nancial literacy among the population
create the necessary basis for the implementation of fraudulent activities
that undermine people’s condence in the public authorities predetermining
the increase of social tension and anxiety in society. In this connection, the
state of international, interstate and national nancial security deserves
attention and assessment, taking into account development trends of the
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Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 373-385
world economy in a polycentric world and constantly changing international
life (Avdeev et al., 2020).
Consideration for nancial security from the perspective of international
nancial relations shows the interrelation and interaction among the
following elements: 1) nancial and external economic security of national
economies; 2) nancial security of large economic and legal unions and
groups (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, European
Union); 3) nancial security as counteraction to key modern threats,
challenges and negative trends at the global world level. The assessment of
global nancial stability is done from the standpoint of stable performance
in the international nancial system, which ensures eective resource
allocation, nancial risk management and price ow for nancial and real
assets, and the maintenance of natural employment. This approach ensures
that destabilization of real and nancial markets are excluded. Insucient
level of international nancial security causes formation of capital outow,
reduction of investment volumes and increase of distrust of population to
the national nancial system which forms conditions for stagnation of state
economy (Afanasyeva, 2006).
The system of international nancial security, having a complex
structure, includes spheres of international nancial relations. The main
components of this system are the following types of international security:
debt, currency, investment and monetary. International nancial security
also includes budget security of the participants, security of the international
banking sector, stock market security and international insurance market
security.
International nancial security has a direct impact on the security in
this area of each state in the world. Financial security of the country is
recognized as an integral part of its economic security. Financial security is
primarily the security of all sectors in the state economy.
Threats to international nancial security are factors that hinder or pose
a threat to the realization of international nancial and economic interests.
The main threats are considered to be: a) deterioration of the conditions
for the development of the world economy; b) unfavorable consequences
of making nancial decisions without international coordination; c)
aggression in the nancial and economic sphere in one of the countries.
The key modern threats to international nancial security are the
following: the probable emergence of the global nancial crisis; uncontrolled
growth of sovereign debts; deepening of nancial problems within the
European Union; high volatility of nancial markets; uncertainty regarding
the state of some areas in the global nancial system; dynamics of prices on
stocks, metals and oil; problematic issues of credit contraction in the banking
systems for some countries; deteriorating credit ratings of countries; lack
376
Vadim Avdeevich Avdeev, Olga Anatolievna Avdeeva, Stanislav Vasilyevich Rozenko, Evgeny
Aleksandrovich Kiselev, Igor Vyacheslavovich Kuleshov y Aleksey Vital’yevich Morozov
Current Directions of Legal Ensuring National Security
of liquidity in the dynamism of the modern world order is characterized by
the polycentric character of developing nancial relations in the context
of globalization. A new stage of development in the world economy that
determined the inuence of world nancial systems on the state of nancial
system for each state caused changes in their qualitative level. In this
connection, the problem of negative reection in the mentioned process,
rst of all, on nancial systems of insuciently economically developed
countries is brought up to date. Accordingly, the issues of ensuring nancial
independence for the most vulnerable states, characterized by a low level
of economic development and diculties in entering the world market as a
full-edged partner, should be addressed.
However, it should be borne in mind that the emerging nancial
relations are proprietary and powerful. It is the nancial system that
determines the welfare and well-being of society, the level of condence for
the country’s population in the actions of this system (Avdeev, 2013b). As
a consequence, it becomes necessary and expedient to adequately protect
the nancial system and create favorable conditions for its functioning.
Ecient functioning of nancial markets and accumulation of nancial
resources within a budgetary system that would ensure functioning of the
mechanism for social and economic policy should be taken into account.
It should be said that nancial security has a special place in the system
of economic security of the country. This is conrmed, in particular, by
the high level of inuence for economic phenomena and processes on the
nancial system and nancial activities of the state. This impact gets the
most vivid expression in conditions of formation for contradictions and
crisis phenomena in economy. The fact is that every economic initiative
and every economic project implemented by the state requires nancing.
Large-scale economic crises have made it necessary to protect the
nancial security of countries. As a consequence, each state forms its
own normative-legal base of nancial security. As a rule, new or updated
strategic directions of ensuring national security, an integral element of
which is recognized as an independent type - nancial security, are subject
to implementation.
1. Financial security in the system of national security
Financial security is characterized by the state of the state’s nancial
system, characterized by a high level of stability, integrity, competitiveness,
development which guarantees an obligatory basis for the implementation
of socio-economic policies to ensure national security. Financial security
is expressed in the prevention of: a) the direction of nancial ows outside
the country; b) conicts and confrontations between state bodies regarding
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Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 373-385
the allocation of resources in the country’s budget system; c) minimizing
the impact of global crises. Financial security guarantees the stability of
economic and nancial parameters (Ivanov et al., 2016). The prevention,
suppression and prevention of crimes in the nancial sphere is of no small
importance.
Understanding nancial security implies understanding the nancial
system interacting with this type of security. The nancial system should
be considered in the context of: 1) a set of target funds; 2) related to their
functioning public relations; 3) structures providing the implementation
of state nancial relations. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that
the understanding of nancial security cannot be limited to the activities
of special services and law enforcement agencies. On this basis, it is worth
noting that nancial security is an integral qualitative characteristic of
the state nancial system, reecting its ability to maintain the necessary
conditions for the life of society, the population, etc.
Financial security from the point of view for state authorities is the
ability to perform assigned duties and functions including the prevention
of nancial crimes and oenses. The prevention and prevention of money
laundering and other property obtained by criminal means deserves close
attention in this connection.
It should be noted the special role of nancial security in the
implementation in the state nancial policy corresponding to the national
interests. Financial security contributes to the formation of the necessary
and sucient amount of funds to be distributed in the performance of tasks
and functions that ensure the goals set by the state. On this basis, it should
be concluded that nancial security is an integral part of economic security,
based on the competitiveness, independence and eciency of the nancial
system (Levina et al., 2017). The criteria for the state in the nancial system
indicators are the availability of the necessary resources, the balance of the
nances of private and public entities. Among modern threats to nancial
security, threats of internal and external nature deserve close attention.
Internal threats are: a) insuciently eective economic and nancial
policy; b) incorrect determination of strategies and tactics for ensuring
economic and nancial security; c) miscalculations of governing bodies;
d) abuse of power in the management of the country’s nancial system.
External threats are recognized as: 1) global growth on a global scale of the
modern nancial system; 2) inclusion in the world economy of developing
states; 3) the rapid increase in the mass of capital.
Modern problems of national nancial security have a negative impact
on state economic growth and ongoing transformations in the economy,
negatively aecting the further development of foreign economic and trade
activities, acting as an obstacle to the modernization and development of
insurance, nancial and budgetary spheres.
378
Vadim Avdeevich Avdeev, Olga Anatolievna Avdeeva, Stanislav Vasilyevich Rozenko, Evgeny
Aleksandrovich Kiselev, Igor Vyacheslavovich Kuleshov y Aleksey Vital’yevich Morozov
Current Directions of Legal Ensuring National Security
Domestic nancial security is complemented by the nancial security
of enterprises, revealing the conditions for the eective use of nancial
resources to prevent the threat and stabilize their functioning. Financial
security implies the state of the rm which provides protection from the
adverse eects of competitors. In this regard, the following segments of the
nancial security system should be distinguished - scal, credit-banking
and monetary-currency.
2. Mechanism of legal support for nancial security
The mechanism for implementing the nancial security of states is
complex and multifaceted. The purpose of nancial security is the ability
of nancial institutions to create mechanisms for the protection and
implementation of public funds, the formation of the necessary and sucient
economic potential and nancial conditions to preserve the integrity and
unity of the national nancial system including under negative internal and
external inuences.
The key task in ensuring nancial security is to control the distributed
state nancial ows, understood as the movement of objects with state
property rights or elements of state property, including the sources of their
formation, estimated in value terms. A prerequisite for ensuring nancial
security is the formation of a single information system that controls various
stages of the budget process, provides the detection and prediction of external
and internal threats and risks. Given the suggested informational basis, a
set of measures to protect the state nancial sphere, ensuring eective legal
regulation of nancial ows, is subject to development (Levina et al., 2017).
The required level of control involves the implementation for the principle
of information disclosure, providing for strict reporting on the use of public
nancial resources. It is the proper control and accounting in the regulation
for nancial ows that predetermines the basis of nancial security.
Updating the content in modern conditions of nancial ows determines
the development in the formation of a new economic situation associated
with the renewal to regulate the function of global cash ows. The complexity
of control is characterized by nancial transnational transactions. In this
regard, the problem of turning a nancial organization into a link in the
implementation of criminal activities becomes urgent. As a consequence,
it is logical to propose the internationalization for the activities of law
enforcement agencies in dierent countries as a measure to counteract
the globalization of nancial crimes. An exchange of received information
about forthcoming and committed crimes between nancial security and
nancial intelligence units looks promising (Goldfrank, 2000). The main
direction of law-enforcement activity should be: 1) unication in the system
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of standards for the bank’s customer survey, primarily in the direction to
identify individuals; 2) archiving of identied customer data and completed
banking transactions; 3) focus on large transactions which cause suspicion;
4) informing nancial security units about suspicious banking operations
performed.
International legal support of nancial security of the states is based
on the normative legal acts, which generally provide economic security.
Economic and social rights are guaranteed by the international community
in the framework of international normative legal acts, ratied by the
states. Among international documents of universal character, the
following deserve attention: the Convention on Employment Policy in
1964, the Declaration on Social Progress and Development in 1969,
the Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons in 1971, the
Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition in
1974, the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States in 1974, the
Declaration on the New International Economic Order in 1974, Program of
Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, 1975
Declaration on the Use of Scientic and Technological Progress for Peace
and the Benet of Mankind, 1975 Declaration on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities, 1979 UN General Assembly Resolution “Consolidation
and Progressive Development of the Principles and Rules of International
Law Relating to the Legal Aspects of the New International Economic
Order”, UNCTAD Resolution on “Non-coercive Economic Measures” 1983,
UN General Assembly Resolution on “Economic Measures as a means
of political and economic coercion against developing countries” 1983,
UN General Assembly Resolution on “Condence Building Measures in
International Economic Relations” 1984, UN General Assembly Resolution
on “International Economic Security” 1985, UN General Assembly
Resolution on “International Economic Security” 1987, Convention on the
Promotion of Employment and Protection against Unemployment 1988,
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant
Workers and Members of Their Families 1990.
The national economies of states are an integral part of the modern
world economy. Ensuring the economic security of countries is recognized
as a complex and multilevel problem. Achievement of the goal to ensure
economic security implies a complex solution of tasks for economic and
legal nature using the means of international law and national legislation.
Despite the international community’s resolution to a number of
complex issues regarding economic security and other types of security
that are part of its content, the complexity in international legal guarantees
of the nancial security for states remains. The problem is that the
international legal provision of nancial security for the status represents
obvious diculties caused by the lack of the necessary provision for the
380
Vadim Avdeevich Avdeev, Olga Anatolievna Avdeeva, Stanislav Vasilyevich Rozenko, Evgeny
Aleksandrovich Kiselev, Igor Vyacheslavovich Kuleshov y Aleksey Vital’yevich Morozov
Current Directions of Legal Ensuring National Security
budgetary sovereignty for countries. In the modern period, there is no
eective mechanism to prevent the adverse eects for updated forms of
international nancial activity.
Interconnection and interaction of the world community indicate
a certain degree of dependence in the global nancial system on the
stability in the state nancial systems. Currently, the key direction of the
transformation in the global nancial system is recognized as nancial
stabilization, which determines the balance of all sources for nancial
development without exception (Avdeev and Avdeeva, 2014). Each state,
seeking to deepen international cooperation, should take into account both
positive changes in the national nancial system and negative consequences
caused by new challenges and threats.
The BRICS countries, seeking to enhance interconnectivity, cooperation
and coordination in their activities, pay special attention to nancial
security issues, with a focus on countering terrorism and money laundering.
One of the goals for BRICS is to promote development, prosperity and
security in an interconnected and cooperating multipolar world. Projects
in the eld of information exchange on ensuring information and nancial
security should be implemented. Attention should be given to modernizing
the international mechanism for the recovery and conscation of criminal
assets.
International legal support of nancial security presupposes the
formation of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework. In this
connection, the establishment of the International Financial Stability
Forum on the basis of the Financial Stability Forum on 02.04.2009
deserves a positive assessment. The International Financial Stability Board
that adopted a number of documents important for nancial and legal
regulation should be commended. Noteworthy among these documents
are Program Measures of Regulating Systemically Important Financial
Institutions. Within the framework of these measures, the nancial-credit
institutions are to be dened as nancial companies, the bankruptcy of
which leads to a decline in economic activity and the nancial system.
To prevent the negative consequences of bankruptcy, it is advisable to
directly nance nancial and monetary organizations, which negatively
aects public nances. On this basis, the following recommendations of
the Council on the Regulation of Credit and Monetary Institutions are
actualized: 1) establishing requirements for planning rehabilitation in the
event of bankruptcy and preliminary assessment for the probability of
bankruptcy in this organization; 2) establishing conditions on the increased
capital of these organizations; 3) introducing and ensuring a more
thorough supervision of organizations; 4) giving regulators the necessary
and sucient powers and resources to streamline the liquidation of credit
institutions.
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However, the regulation of interstate nancial relations provides for a
somewhat dierent status of the Financial Stability Board. The proposed
format of discussing complex issues and making decisions excludes the
possibility of developing and implementing general recommendations in
the area of nancial security (Kartashkin and Lukasheva, 2002). Without
the status of an international intergovernmental organization, the Council
does not allow each state to inuence its decisions by exercising control
over its activities.
Crisis phenomena in the economy, sanctions from various states cause
the following list of threats to nancial security: a) high level of dependence
on a number of countries; b) inability of the state nancial system to
respond timely and adequately to emerging risks and threats. The observed
negative trends in the nancial sphere complicate the implementation of
necessary economic domestic transformations, precluding stable growth of
the economy, aecting the economic activity of the country in a negative
way.
Establishment and functioning of banks in advanced economies envisage
a developed and eective supervising system which guarantees stability of
their activities for a relatively long period of time. Of special importance in
this case is a regular control over nancial activities of banks.
Policies to assure national security and socio-economic development
are conducive to realization of strategic national priorities and eective
protection of national interests. In modern conditions a sustainable basis
for further building of economic, political and spiritual potentials is to be
created increasing the role of countries in the emerging polycentric world.
Each state should be aimed at demonstrating its ability to ensure
independence, sovereignty, state and territorial integrity, the rights
protection of compatriots abroad. The increasing role of countries in solving
complex international problems, ensuring strategic stability and the rule
of international law in inter-state relations, resolving military conicts
deserves attention. The domestic economy should demonstrate the ability
to strengthen and preserve national potential under conditions of instability
in the global economy and the application of restrictive economic measures
imposed by a number of countries. The implementation by a number of
countries for independent domestic and foreign policy is often accompanied
by opposition from the superpowers, members of various political and
economic blocs and their allies, seeking to maintain their dominance in
world aairs (Avdeev et al., 2016). The result is a policy of containment
which includes economic, political, informational and military pressure.
Regional and global instability is a negative consequence of the formation
and development of a new polycentric model in the world order. The
contradictions associated with the unevenness of the world development,
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Vadim Avdeevich Avdeev, Olga Anatolievna Avdeeva, Stanislav Vasilyevich Rozenko, Evgeny
Aleksandrovich Kiselev, Igor Vyacheslavovich Kuleshov y Aleksey Vital’yevich Morozov
Current Directions of Legal Ensuring National Security
the struggle for resources, the deepening gap between the levels of welfare
for states, control over the transport arteries and access to markets are
exacerbated. The world’s demographic situation is becoming more complex,
food security and environmental problems are becoming more acute. The
consequences of climate change are evident in the growing scarcity of fresh
water. Epidemics and pandemics are spreading, in particular due to new,
previously unknown viruses.
Increasing interstate competition largely encompasses models and
values of societal development and technological, scientic and human
potentials. The struggle for leadership in the development of Arctic and
ocean resources deserves close attention. In this case, the whole range of
nancial, economic, political and informational tools is to be used including
a high probability for using the potential of special services.
The increasing inuence of political factors on economic processes,
as well as the desire of some countries to use economic methods, tools of
trade, nancial, technological and investment policy to solve their own
geopolitical tasks have a negative impact on the stability of the system
in international economic relations (Avdeev, 2013a). Considering the
structural imbalances in the nancial system and world economy, increasing
sovereign debts, volatility of the energy resources market, the risk of new
large-scale nancial and economic crises remains high. As a response to
growing international instability, states become responsible for aairs in
their own regions. Regional and subregional trade and other economic
agreements serve as the most important safeguards against crises. Interest
in the use of regional currencies is growing. To prevent threats to national
security, countries focus on eorts to strengthen the internal unity of
society, interethnic harmony and religious tolerance, ensure social stability,
eliminate structural imbalances in the economy and its modernization, and
improve national defense capabilities.
Protecting national interests requires a pragmatic, rational and open
foreign policy that rules out economically unjustied and quite costly
interstate confrontation. International relations must be based on the
principles of international law, equal and reliable security of countries,
mutual respect of peoples, preservation of the diversity for their cultures,
traditions and interests. Each state should be interested in the development
of equal and mutually benecial trade and economic cooperation with
foreign countries, acting as a responsible member of the multilateral
trading system. The goal is to acquire a signicant number of equal partners
in dierent parts of the world (Sergevnin et al., 2015). Among the national
interests within the framework of the implemented social and legal policy
the following directions deserve close attention, related to the improvement
of the life quality, competitiveness of the national economy, consolidation of
the status of countries, whose activities are aimed at maintaining mutually
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 373-385
benecial partnership relations and strategic stability in a polycentric world.
Improving the life quality of people provides for the development of human
potential, satisfaction of spiritual, material and social needs, reducing the
level of property and social inequality of the population primarily through
the growth of their income.
Conclusions
The analysis of the international and national foundations for ensuring
nancial security indicates the feasibility of further scientic developments
with an interdisciplinary nature, expanding and deepening the traditional
methodology. The obtained scientic results seem to be consistently used in
the formation for scientic foundations of nancial security which should be
placed in the basis of international, interstate and national legal regulation
of nancial relations. It is logical to use doctrinal inter-branch achievements
for the legislative registration of the legal framework for ensuring nancial
security of each state, taking into account the inherent socio-economic,
political and legal, cultural, religious and other characteristics.
The development and implementation of state nancial policy that
ensures the safe development of the budget system, banks, national
currency, foreign investment and etc. is of fundamental importance.
Scientically substantiated proposals for the implementation of the state-
legal nancial policy to counter external and internal threats are of practical
importance. In this regard, the activities of state and local authorities
should be consolidated to achieve the established objectives, issues and
tasks in the eld of economic and nancial security of the state. Attention
should be paid to maintaining the real sector of the economy, maintaining
the stability and stability of the macroeconomic situation, improving the
quality of economic management, neutralizing the impact of global nancial
crises, and ensuring the stability of the nancial system.
The eciency of state asset management should be improved. Inecient
budget expenditures and related costs should be reduced. The activity of law
enforcement bodies in the sphere of combating nancial crime including
corruption, embezzlement and misuse of public funds should be intensied.
Special attention should be paid to strengthening the nancial system,
ensuring its sovereignty, stability of the national currency, optimization
of currency regulation and control, reducing ination, development of the
national nancial market infrastructure, reducing bank rates, increasing
the level of direct investment, access to credit, attracting domestic savings,
deoshorization of the economy, the return of national capital and reducing
the volume of its export abroad. A balanced budget system and modernization
of inter-budgetary intra-state relations are of no small importance. Among
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