Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
ISSN-Versión Impresa 0798-1406 / ISSN-Versión on line 2542-3185Depósito legal pp
197402ZU34
ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.39 N° 69
Julio
Diciembre
2021
Recibido el 14/02/2021 Aceptado el 12/05/2021
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
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“Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che”. Ma ra cai bo, Ve ne zue la. E- mail: cues tio nes po li ti cas@gmail.
com ~ loi chi ri nos por til lo@gmail.com. Te le fax: 58- 0261- 4127018.
Vol. 39, Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre) 2021, 212-224
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Citizens ‘participation in the ght
against criminal oences: political
and legal aspects
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.3969.12
Yevhen Leheza *
Yuliia Dorokhina **
Oleksandr Shamara ***
Serhii Miroshnychenko ****
Vita
Moroz *****
Abstract
The aim of the research is to reveal political and legal aspects
at international level in the eld of citizens’ participation in the
ght against crime. Attention is paid to the most common forms of
public participation: patrolling; provide information on criminals
or criminal acts committed; participation in anti-corruption
measures; assistance in the resocialization of oenders; aiding victims
of crime; strengthening the security of one’s own property; participation
in information on anti-criminal measures. Methodologically it is a
documentary research. In conclusion, the benets of public participation
in crime prevention, based on international crime prevention, can be
divided into two groups: basic and additional. The main advantages are
reduction of crime and delinquency; improve security in relevant areas of
cities; reducing citizens’ fear of crime; strengthening the service function of
the police forces in relation to the inhabitants of territorial communities;
improve police partnerships with the public.
* Yevhen Leheza, Professor, Doctor of Science in law, Professor at the Department of Administrative and
Customs Law, University of Customs and Finance, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-
9134-8499. Email: yevhenleheza@gmail.com
** Yuliia Dorokhina, Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Administrative Law and Administrative
Process Department of Institute of Law of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13,
Volodymyrska Street, City of Kyiv, Ukraine, 01601, ORCID ID : https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2799-
3933. Email: zdobuvach@ukr.net
*** Oleksandr Shamara, PhD in Law, senior scientic ocer, Professor of the Department of Law,
Dniprovsky Humanitarian University Dnipro, Ukraine. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-
0571-0437. Email: alexandr79shamara@gmail.com
**** Serhii Miroshnychenko Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal
Law and Criminology, University of the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine, Irpin, Ukraine. ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4792-6081. Email: Miroshnychenko@email.ua
***** Vita
Moroz, PhD in Law, Associate Professor Associate Professor administrative law, process and
administrative activities, Dnipropetrovsk state University of Internal Aairs, Dnipro, Ukraine.
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4433-3731. Email: 0675631677@ukr.net
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 212-224
Keywords: crime prevention; citizen participation; international
experience; forms of public participation in crime prevention;
Ukraine.
Participación de los ciudadanos en la lucha contra los
delitos penales: aspectos políticos y legales
Resumen
El objetivo de la investigación es revelar aspectos políticos y legales en
el plano internacional en el campo de la participación de los ciudadanos
en la lucha contra el delito. Se presta atención a las formas más comunes
de participación pública: patrullaje; proporcionar información sobre
criminales o hechos de delitos cometidos; participación en medidas
anticorrupción; asistencia en la resocialización de delincuentes; brindar
asistencia a las víctimas de delitos; fortalecer la seguridad de la propiedad
propia; participación en la información sobre medidas anticriminales.
Metodológicamente se trata de una investigación documental. A modo
de conclusión, en cuanto a los benecios de la participación pública en la
prevención del delito, basada en la práctica internacional en este ámbito,
se pueden dividir en dos grupos: básicos y adicionales. Las principales
ventajas son: reducción del crimen y la delincuencia; mejorar la seguridad
en áreas relevantes de las ciudades; reducir el miedo de los ciudadanos a la
delincuencia; fortalecer la función de servicio de los cuerpos policiales en
relación con los habitantes de las comunidades territoriales; mejorar las
asociaciones de la policía con el público.
Palabras clave: prevención del delito; participación ciudadana;
experiencia internacional; formas de participación
pública en la prevención del delito; Ucrania.
Introduction
The purpose of most criminological research is to develop promising
areas of crime prevention. The implementation of this scientic task is
impossible without a study of foreign crime prevention practices, given
the assessment of its eectiveness for possible implementation in Ukraine
and even critical evaluation. Thus, the foreign practice of crime prevention
with the participation of one of the many actors in this activity, which is the
public, is of scientic interest.
214
Yevhen Leheza, Yuliia Dorokhina, Oleksandr Shamara, Serhii Miroshnychenko y Vita Moroz
Citizens ‘participation in the ght against criminal oences: political and legal aspects
The literature rightly points out that the most important part of the
content of comparative law research is knowledge that has a functional
nature, goes beyond national legal systems and is a universal theoretical and
practical value (Bekhruz, 2003). This can be supplemented by the words of
O. Yu. Shostko, who emphasized that taking into account the experience of
other countries is always an additional positive factor that allows a more
rational approach to the development of their own safety models (Shostko,
2012). Similar ideas of scientists are reected in the regulations of law
enforcement agencies, which dene new approaches to crime prevention
in Ukraine. In particular, the Development Strategy of the System of the
Ministry of Internal Aairs of Ukraine for the period up to 2020, approved
by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated November 15, 2017 № 1023-r,
emphasizes that the Strategy will be implemented taking into account the
positive experience and best practices of leading countries (Development
Strategy of the System of the Ministry of Internal Aairs of Ukraine for the
period up to 2020, 2017).
In this regard, we believe that the study of other countries’ practice on
public use in crime prevention deserves attention and is justied from the
standpoint of criminology for a number of reasons: a) the prevalence of
comparative law research corresponds to a trend of modern criminology
(Kolodiazhnyi, 2017); b) focus on the implementation of regulations that
dene modern approaches to crime prevention in Ukraine; c) consistency
with the European integration vector of Ukraine’s development, including
in the law enforcement sphere; d) is the basis for the possible expansion
of certain areas of public participation in crime prevention in our country.
1. Literature review
V. V. Holina, O. Dzhafarova,V. M. Dromin, M. H. Kolodiazhnyi, Ye.
Leheza, Yu. Shostko, M. Savielieva, S. A. Zadorozhnyi and others paid
attention to the study of foreign experience in crime prevention, including
with the participation of the public. In the works of some scientists, the issue
under consideration was highlighted through the presentation of opinions
on the prevention of certain crimes. Others studied public involvement in
law enforcement separately by country.
This form of public participation in crime prevention is the most
common abroad. According to some scholars, patrolling can be attributed
to a historically rooted type of law enforcement, which has subsequently
improved, changed its forms and means of achieving the main goal of law
enforcement (Kolodiazhnyi, 2018). In our opinion, such an improvement
can be attributed to the expansion of police patrols, which include citizens.
In general, patrolling is characteristic not only of the developed western
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 212-224
countries of the world, but also of less socially prosperous Latin American,
African and Asian countries.
The main trends in preventing and combating corruption in democracies
are, rst, a clear correlation and relationship between the level of
democratization of society and corruption (the more in a democracy, the
less corruption there); secondly, civil society is seen as the main subject of
inuence on the government - and, accordingly, as the primary subject of
anti-corruption (Zadorozhnyi, 2017).
2. Results and discussion
The central methodological component of criminological knowledge
of modern foreign experience of public participation in crime prevention
is the consideration of forms of such activities. Various foreign forms of
public participation in crime prevention can be divided by their nature into
the following: a) patrolling; b) providing information about criminals or
facts of committed crimes; c) participation in anti-corruption measures; d)
assistance in resocialization of oenders; e) providing assistance to victims
of crime; f) strengthening the security of own property; g) participation in
information anti-criminogenic measures; g) other forms.
Patrol. The practice of public patrol in the United States is quite
powerful given the quantitative composition and variety of activities. This
is facilitated by the presence of special organizations (volunteer councils,
public commissions at municipalities), which deal with the issues of
diversication of police patrols, increasing its eectiveness, funding. The
most well-known public patrol organization in the United States and
around the world is the Guardian Angels, which since 1979 have helped
police maintain law and order not only in the United States but in many
other parts of the world. Guardian Angels is a voluntary non-governmental
organization that patrols subway stations, streets and other public places on
a gratuitous basis (Leheza et al., 2018). In general, dierent (both combined
patrols and patrols consisting exclusively of civilians) operate in all US states.
According to the US Department of Justice’s Community Oriented Policing
Services, the most eective crime prevention programs in the country to
engage Americans in patrols are: “Volunteers to Help the Police” (Phoenix,
Arizona); “Neighborhood Patrols” (Millersville, Maryland); “Street patrols
counter thefts and carjacking” (Ardmore, Pennsylvania), etc.
The intensication of public patrols in Great Britain was facilitated by
the adoption in the early 1990s of special programs, one of which was Street
Patrol (Vedernykova, 2001), as well as the creation of a public patrol service
(Community Support Ocers) and special constables. The members of this
organization protect public order as part of mixed patrols and have no right
216
Yevhen Leheza, Yuliia Dorokhina, Oleksandr Shamara, Serhii Miroshnychenko y Vita Moroz
Citizens ‘participation in the ght against criminal oences: political and legal aspects
to use force against oenders. Their main task is to reveal the facts of the
committed crimes and to report various incidents by walkie-talkie. The
eciency of their activities is quite high, which is ensured by strengthening
social control in public places.
The practice of public patrolling in China is quite widespread and
widespread. In Beijing alone, up to 850,000 volunteers are involved in
maintaining public order. The peculiarity of Chinese patrols is the age of the
patrols, as most patrols are people of retirement age from 50 to 70 years.
They help the police to detain criminals and report the facts of crimes and
oenses on a gratuitous basis. Such patrols are intensifying in China on the
eve of Chinese New Year, other national holidays and mass cultural and
entertainment events (Connor, 2018).
Providing information about criminals or the facts of crimes committed.
One of the world’s best-known crime prevention programs, designed to
encourage citizens to provide any anonymous information about crimes or
criminals, is the Crime Stoppers program. This project was rst introduced
in the United States in 1976. As of 2018, the international platform “Crime
Stoppers” involves 26 countries, including the United States, Britain,
Canada, the Netherlands, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and other
Latin American and African states. Sources of funding for anonymous
information about criminal events are sponsorship of legal entities,
donations from citizens, gifts, inheritance, etc. Since 2010, the project has
maintained a strategic partnership with the International Criminal Police
Organization (Interpol), and since 2016 – with the United Nations Oce on
Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (Leheza et al., 2018).
In some countries, in addition to the Crime Stoppers project, there are
other additional prevention programs aimed at activating the public to
provide information about the crimes committed, especially high-prole
crimes. These include the United States, which has strong funding for
this activity, as well as broad support for such initiatives by civil society.
In particular, in Staord, New Jersey, a program “Crime Alert”. It is to
persuade Americans to participate in the program. All persons who wish
to report crimes and oenses anonymously, in order to secure them and
enhance the anonymity of messages, are issued special identication
numbers (QR-codes), which exclude the leakage of any information about
the perpetrator.
It will be recalled that in Ukraine, in contrast to many Western countries,
the practice of monetary and other incentives for conscious citizens
who provide information about crimes and criminals is not widespread.
There is no appropriate legal framework that would legally determine the
conditions of anonymous reporting of the facts of crimes committed. The
only exception is the Law of Ukraine “On Prevention of Corruption” of 2014,
where in Art. 53 denes the conditions of state protection of persons who
217
CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 212-224
provide assistance in preventing and combating corruption. At the same
time, there is no norm on encouraging whistleblowers.
Participation in anti-corruption measures. Non-governmental
organizations have a strong opportunity in this area, the main task of
which is to expose corruption. Researchers of public involvement in the
prevention of corruption crimes in foreign countries have identied a
number of non-governmental organizations with international status.
These are: Transparency International, International Anticorruption
Resource Center, Corruption Watch, Transparify and others (Biletskyi,
2018). The analysis of the activities of these and other non-governmental
organizations allowed us to conclude that their anti-corruption inuence is
embodied through the following measures: formation and implementation
of anti-corruption policy; evaluation of anti-corruption mechanisms used
by governments; collection and processing of information on corruption
cases; detection of corruption risks; providing legal assistance; development
and implementation of educational programs; formation of anti-corruption
worldview of citizens.
Sweden is one of the countries least aected by corruption. In this
country, there is eective public control over the activities of both the
public and private sectors, the leading role in which is played by the media,
the church and public opinion. However, the latter may create a negative
image of businessmen or ocials, as a result of which some will be forced
to resign, while others will lose trust among business partners.
Similarly, public control over the activities of government agencies, as
well as the cultivation of intolerance in society to any manifestations of
corruption takes place in Switzerland, the Netherlands, the United States,
France, Poland and others.
As for the United States, in this country the institution of public anti-
corruption oversight is provided by the Freedom of Information Act of
1966, according to which all federal agencies must provide citizens with
free access to all available declassied information. Thanks to this law,
it has become more possible to expose corruption. Such activities are
carried out by a number of non-governmental organizations in the United
States: Judicial Watch, Project on Government Oversight, Government
Accountability Project, and others.
For example, in Seoul in 1999, the anti-corruption program “OPEN”
was developed, which allowed citizens to control the work of ocials. This
allows you to monitor at any time the process of reviewing documents for
applications for permits in a particular case, especially when there is the
highest likelihood of corruption.
Canada does not have special anti-corruption agencies, and its anti-
corruption system is built on active public participation through the media,
professional associations and organizations.
218
Yevhen Leheza, Yuliia Dorokhina, Oleksandr Shamara, Serhii Miroshnychenko y Vita Moroz
Citizens ‘participation in the ght against criminal oences: political and legal aspects
As you can see, the role of the public in preventing corruption in foreign
countries is quite important, and most importantly has a practical focus,
which is:
- supervision, ie the public closely monitors legislative and
institutional changes, transparency in the formation and functioning
of government, as well as corruption cases (from disclosure to
investigation, prosecution and trial).
- developing viable experience and knowledge of viable alternatives
through the development of bills, concepts of institutional reforms
and educational campaigns.
- inuence as one of the most important tools that can be used to
exert public pressure on government and ocials in making specic
decisions.
- actions, namely the provision of services in the social sphere, the
publication of information on cases of corruption and raising
awareness of a wide range of citizens.
Assistance in resocialization of oenders. This form of public
participation in crime prevention is especially common in the developed
western countries of the world, which are characterized by a relatively
humane criminal policy. It is characterized by a low percentage of convictions
related to imprisonment, as well as the widespread use of the practice of
release from probation (Dromin, 2007). Therefore, resocialization can be
both penitentiary and post-penitentiary in nature.
For example, in France and the United Kingdom, public resocialization
penitentiary practice is that a number of social, educational and other
activities are carried out by representatives of non-governmental, public
structures, and semi-state entities. Such measures include: development
of specic social programs, their implementation, provision of social
assistance, involvement in social work of the necessary specialists on
a voluntary basis and assistance to convicts. In Finland, there is an
Association for Probation and Further Supervision to help solve the social
problems of parolees and released prisoners, which also includes some non-
governmental organizations. A feature of penitentiary resocialization in
Germany is the wide participation of the church and religious organizations
(Barash, 2016).
Post-penitentiary resocialization is characterized by the fact that
convicts who are at large after committing a crime are obliged to participate
in mediation programs, probation, the practice of reconciliation with
the victim, attend special rehabilitation psychological, pedagogical, and
medical and social courses and trainings on taming aggression, treatment