Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Derecho Público "Dr. Humberto J. La Roche"
de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas de la Universidad del Zulia
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Esta publicación cientíca en formato digital es continuidad de la revista impresa
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ppi 201502ZU4645
Vol.39 N° 69
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Recibido el 14/03/2021 Aceptado el 02/06/2021
ISSN 0798- 1406 ~ De si to le gal pp 198502ZU132
Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas
La re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas, es una pu bli ca ción aus pi cia da por el Ins ti tu to
de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co “Dr. Hum ber to J. La Ro che” (IEPDP) de la Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas de la Uni ver si dad del Zu lia.
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avan ces o re sul ta dos de in ves ti ga ción en las áreas de Cien cia Po lí ti ca y De re cho Pú bli-
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Re vis ta Cues tio nes Po lí ti cas. Av. Gua ji ra. Uni ver si dad del Zu lia. Nú cleo Hu ma nís ti co. Fa-
cul tad de Cien cias Ju rí di cas y Po lí ti cas. Ins ti tu to de Es tu dios Po lí ti cos y De re cho Pú bli co
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Vol. 39, Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre) 2021, 146-163
IEPDP-Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas - LUZ
Present Innovation Policy: Russian
Regions Data
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46398/cuestpol.3969.08
Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia *
Natalya R. Aleksandrova **
Tatyana V. Treskova ***
Daniela S. Veas Iniesta ****
Abstract
Innovation policies are currently one of the main axes for
improving the eciency of national economies in developed
and developing countries. The innovation policy includes a
comprehensive system of activities. In Russia, increasing the
specic weight of commercial entities engaged in innovative
activities is among the most important objectives for the short
term. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of innovation
based on taking into account the specic weight of organizations
that perform innovations in the total number of organizations operating in
the regions of Russia. Our study was based on ocial statistical information
on the 82 regions of Russia for 2017-2019. Economic-mathematical models
have been developed that describe the specic weight of the organizations
that implement innovation. There are no signicant changes in the
indicators for the years indicated. It has been shown that, to date, almost
one in ve organizations in the Russian Federation has used innovation in
their activities. In addition, they have identied the regions with maximum
and minimum values of the specic weightings of innovative organizations
for 2019.
Keywords: innovation policy; innovations; innovative organizations;
regions of Russia; functions of normal distribution.
* PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Economic analysis and state management, Ulyanovsk
State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia. ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8224-9031. Email:
pinkovetskaia@gmail.com
** PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, organization and management at the enterprise,
Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin, Ulyanovsk, Russia, ORCID ID: http://
orcid.org/0000-0002-8711-8313. Email: aleksandrova_nr@mail.ru
*** PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Finance and credit, Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University
named after P.А. Stolypin, Ulyanovsk, Russia, ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7478-0095.
Email: treskova77@mail.ru
**** Researcher, Institute of Engineering economics and humanities, Moscow Aviation Institute (National
Research University), Moscow, Russia, ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8473-0670. Email:
danonik92@mail.ru
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Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 146-163
Política de innovación moderna: datos de las regiones
de Rusia
Resumen
Las políticas de innovación son actualmente uno de los principales
ejes para mejorar la eciencia de las economías nacionales en los países
desarrollados y en desarrollo. La política de innovación incluye un sistema
integral de actividades. En Rusia, el aumento del peso especíco de las
entidades comerciales que realizan actividades innovadoras se incluye
entre los objetivos más importantes para el corto plazo. El objetivo de
nuestro estudio fue evaluar el uso de la innovación sobre la base de tener en
cuenta el peso especíco de las organizaciones que realizan innovaciones en
el número total de organizaciones que funcionan en las regiones de Rusia.
Nuestro estudio se basó en información Estadística ocial sobre las 82
regiones de Rusia para 2017-2019. Se han desarrollado modelos económico-
matemáticos que describen el peso especíco de las organizaciones
que implementan la innovación. No hay cambios signicativos en los
indicadores de los años indicados. Se ha demostrado que, hasta la fecha,
casi una de cada cinco organizaciones de la federación rusa ha utilizado
la innovación en sus actividades. Adicionalmente, se han identicado las
regiones con valores máximos y mínimos de las ponderaciones especícas
de las organizaciones innovadoras para 2019.
Palabras clave: política innovadora; innovación en Rusia;
organizaciones innovadoras; regiones de Rusia;
funciones de la distribución normal.
Introduction
Over the past three decades, there has been a strong view that politics
can inuence innovation (Schot and Steinmueller, 2018). Accordingly, the
term “innovation policy” has become widely used to describe the actions of
various governments that have a signicant impact on increasing the role
of innovation in economic performance and overcoming existing problems
(Edquist, 2011). It should be noted that previously, innovation policy was
described in research as a scientic, research, industrial or technological
policy. Accordingly, innovation policy is a broader concept and includes a
comprehensive holistic system of measures to inuence the state on the
economy in order to increase its eciency (Choi, 2017). Signicantly, in
addition to economic goals, it seeks to link scientic and technical activities
with political goals aimed at improving the well-being of people, the
sustainability of rms, and solving social problems (Geels, 2004).
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Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia, Natalya R. Aleksandrova, Tatyana V. Treskova y Daniela S. Veas Iniesta
Present Innovation Policy: Russian Regions Data
In most developed and developing countries, governments set specic
goals to enhance and support innovation (Howlett, 2011; OECD, 2010). At
the same time, the following goals are achieved:
- analysis of the impact of innovations on socio-economic development.
- identifying barriers that prevent the use of innovations, overcoming
which will increase the chances modernization of success in
production processes.
- measuring the eectiveness of dierent policy options in the eld of
innovation.
- comparative analysis of innovation activity in specic countries with
indicators for other countries.
It is important for investment policy to take into account the
characteristics characteristic of various types of economic activities
(Mazzucato and Penna, 2016). Such an approach should take into account
the exchange of technology between dierent industries and increase
macroeconomic stability by stimulating rm activity (Hausman and Rodrik,
2003).
Policies that address the challenges of increasing innovation should
involve a wide range of government and public organizations (Foray, 2018).
In recent years, Russia has formed high expectations for the growth of
innovation in the economy. Based on the introduction of innovations, it is
planned to move to more technological and ecient forms and methods
of activity of enterprises and organizations. In Russia, innovation policy
is currently determined by the provisions set out in Presidential Decree
No. 204 (2018). This document provides for an increase in the number of
organizations that have implemented innovations to fty percent of their
total number. The problem of increasing innovation activity is relevant in
modern conditions. It seems logical to develop innovations in all regions
of Russia. Next, our paper discusses the theoretical aspects of innovation
policy, the review of the scientic research carried out on this issue, the
methodology and design of our work and its results.
1. Theoretical frameworks
Innovation is now the main focus for addressing the pressing social and
economic challenges posed by policy makers in most countries. At the same
time, innovation policy requires governments to clearly formulate the tasks
that can be solved in the near future with the use of innovations. A policy that
ensures the trust of the majority of rms, which is valid for a long time and
does not experience frequent changes, seems to be appropriate (Fagerberg
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et al., 2016). An eective mechanism for transforming the economy
through innovation is to increase subsidies for research and development.
Such subsidies are particularly important for small businesses (Castellacci
and Mee Lie, 2015). In addition, tax burden reduction can be used (Larédo
et al., 2016). The right choice of policy mechanisms should be based on a
deep understanding of the existing barriers to the use of innovation. The
most dicult stage of using innovation is the survival of rms between
two stages: the formation of innovative ideas and their implementation.
Therefore, innovation policy should be based on supporting rms that
experiment and innovate at an early stage (Lauber and Jacobsson, 2015).
It should be noted that innovation policy should include not only high-
tech activities (for example, manufacturing), but also all other sectors of
national economies (Martin, 2013), including trade, services (Benaim and
Tether, 2016), as well as social activities (Van der Have and Rubalcaba,
2016). Innovation policy cannot rely solely on government support, but
must rely on the coordination of all economic actors, including private
enterprises (Kuhlmann and Rip, 2014).
The development of an eective innovation policy is a complex problem
associated with the increased participation of public administration bodies
and all interested sides in the formation of appropriate measures. Most of
the innovations that had a great impact on the eciency of the economic
sector were based on such approaches (Mazzucato and Semieniuk, 2017;
Edler and Fagerberg, 2017).
To date, three types of political instruments have emerged:
- support for basic research, the commercialization of which is dicult
in the near future. Therefore, the government should allocate the
necessary funds to universities and other research centers to ensure
innovation based on such research.
- assisting corporations and rms that develop new technological and
design work (Mohnen et al., 2017).
- increase of level of legal protection of property rights in developed
and used innovation.
The implementation of public policy instruments can be carried out
in regulatory, economic, and nancial ways (Borrás and Edquist, 2013;
Karakashian, 2015).
When forming an innovation policy, it is necessary to take into account
ve main elements (Fagerberg, 2017):
- knowledge that is formed by state research organizations and
universities, as well as supplemented by their own developments of
various rms.
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Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia, Natalya R. Aleksandrova, Tatyana V. Treskova y Daniela S. Veas Iniesta
Present Innovation Policy: Russian Regions Data
- skills, both highly specialized and general, that are formed in
educational processes, including professional training of people.
- availability of demand for innovative solutions by creating
appropriate markets, as well as using public procurement.
- state nancing of innovative initiatives of small enterprises and
individual entrepreneurs, as well as reducing the tax burden on these
categories of actors.
- improving the institutional support of economic processes based on
the promotion of innovation in legislative and regulatory acts, based
on the needs of the business community.
2. Literature review
Scientic research examines innovations related to changes in existing
knowledge, technological processes, the use of new technology and
other opportunities and resources in various types of economic activities
(Fagerberg et al., 2010), including low-tech and high-tech (Tunzelmann
and Acha, 2004), in the service sector (Rubalcaba et al., 2012).
The analysis of innovation policy is based on the assessment of national
innovation systems that ensure the interaction of innovation actors (Bergek
et al., 2008; Hekkert and Negro, 2009; Weber and Truer, 2017). In recent
years, the study of the features of national innovation systems has become
particularly relevant and has included an analysis of the factors that
aect the eectiveness of such systems (Liu and White, 2001; Smits and
Kuhlmann, 2004). Since 1991, the countries of the European Union have
been collecting information describing not only the innovation activities
of rms, but also the factors inuencing them (Smith, 2004). It should
be noted that the processes of mutual inuence of elements of national
innovation systems in most cases are stable, despite the changes occurring
in the regions (Pierson, 2000). Therefore, regional innovations can vary
greatly among themselves.
A number of scientic publications are devoted to the problem of
innovation activity in Russia. We discuss the most interesting of them, which
were published in 2019-2020. A brief description of these publications is
given in table 1.
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Authors Studied questions
Period,
years
Objects of
innovation
Type of
indicators
1 2 3 4 5
Petrikov
(2019)
Analysis of the
directions of innovation
activity, priority for
individual regions
2016-
2017
Regions of
the Central
Federal
District
indices
Podsolonko
et al. (2019)
Analysis of the
transfer of innovative
technologies by type of
economic activity
2010-
2016
Russia indices
Arkhipova et
al. (2019)
Assessment of the
volume of innovative
goods produced and
services rendered, and
work performed by
small businesses
2016
Russian
regions
absolut
Zhuravlev
(2020)
Assessment of the
degree of readiness of
the regional economic
complex for innovation
based on regression
analysis
2007-
2017
Regions of
the Central
and North-
Western
Federal
Districts
absolute
Belemaeva
and
Kalimullin
(2020)
Increase in the market
capitalization of a
company that regularly
innovated
2001-
2012
One
company
absolute
Deputatova
and
Perelman
(2020)
Analysis of innovative
technologies and
methods for attracting
buyers
2015-
2018
Trade sector
in Russia
absolute
Yezhov
(2020)
Dynamics of changes
in innovative activity of
enterprises. Business
participation in
scientic developments.
Barriers to innovation
2014-
2018
Russia
absolute,
specic
Kudryavtseva
(2020)
Institutional aspects of
state
support for innovations
in production
technologies
2012-
2015
Countries indices
Lipovka and
Arnautova
(2020)
Innovative development
based on information
technologies
2015-
2018
Gypermarket absolute
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Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia, Natalya R. Aleksandrova, Tatyana V. Treskova y Daniela S. Veas Iniesta
Present Innovation Policy: Russian Regions Data
Smirnova
(2020)
Dynamics of changes in
the share of innovative
enterprises. Factors that
reduce the eectiveness
of innovation
implementation
2000-
2014
Russia specic
Table 1. Scientic publications on innovation in Russia
Note: Achieved by the authors
Based on the information given in Table 1, it can be stated that the
problem of studying regional innovation activity is relevant in Russia. At
the same time, in theoretical and applied research to date, unjustiably
little attention has been paid to the comparative analysis of the activities
of organizations (enterprises) that carried out technological innovations
in the regions of Russia. In the same works where such an analysis was
available, the absolute values of innovation activity were compared, as a
rule, which is not always logical, since regions dier signicantly in the
number of economic entities, population, size and location.
3. Methodology and design
The purpose of our study was to assess the levels of innovation use based
on the share of innovative organizations in the total number of organizations
operating in the regions of Russia.
The main aspects of evaluation innovation activities of organizations
are presented in detail in the document (OECD, 2018). At the same time,
innovations are understood as the release of new or improved products
(goods and services) that are signicantly dierent from previously
produced products, as well as the introduction of new or more advanced
production processes in organizations that are signicantly dierent from
those that were previously used. Accordingly, innovations can be of two
types. The rst type of innovation involves better products and services, and
the second type is associated with changes in production processes. Both of
these types of innovations are united by such a concept as technological
innovation. It should be noted that innovations aimed at creating new
or improving existing production processes, in turn, are divided into the
following subspecies:
- changes in production technologies and the creation of new products
(goods and services) in various industries.
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CUESTIONES POLÍTICAS
Vol. 39 Nº 69 (Julio - Diciembre 2021): 146-163
- changes in logistics, transport, and distribution operations related to
the supply of organizations and the sale of nished products.
- improving the technology and organization of information processes.
- use of more eective methods of conducting and managing
production activities, including accounting and control issues.
- development of interaction of organizations with the external
environment.
- improving the eectiveness of personnel policy.
- improvement of methods and forms of marketing and pricing.
An analysis of the previous studies, including those shown in Table 1,
allowed us to conclude that it is advisable to use the share of innovative
organizations in the total number of all organizations in each of the regions
of Russia as an indicator of the level of innovation activity in the regions.
The research process included three stages. At the rst stage, the
initial empirical data describing the share of innovative organizations in
the total number of organizations operating in the regions of Russia were
formed. At the second stage, the distribution of specic values innovation
organizations across the country’s regions was evaluated. At the third stage,
a comparative analysis was carried out, during which the regions of the
country were established, in which the minimum and maximum values of
specic innovations were noted.
As initial information, the study used ocial statistics for 2017-2019 on
the share of innovative organizations in the total number of organizations
in 82 regions of Russia (Federal State Statistics Service, 2021).
In the economic and mathematical modeling used to estimate the
distribution of specic innovation values across the country’s regions,
the normal distribution function was used. The papers (Pinkovetskaia
and Slepova, 2018; Pinkovetskaia et al., 2021) presents a methodological
approach to the development and use of such a function to determine the
average value of the indicator for the considered regions, as well as the
range of its variation.
The study included testing the following three hypotheses:
- hypothesis 1 - the average values of indicators characterizing the
share of Russian organizations that implemented technological
innovations did not change signicantly over the period from 2017 to
2019.
- hypothesis 2 - the values of the share of innovative organizations in
the total number of organizations have a signicant dierentiation
across dierent regions.
154
Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia, Natalya R. Aleksandrova, Tatyana V. Treskova y Daniela S. Veas Iniesta
Present Innovation Policy: Russian Regions Data
- hypothesis 3 - the territorial location of regions does not signicantly
aect the values of the share of innovative organizations in the total
number of organizations.