Melatonina: Posible inmunoregulador en la periodontitis crónica.

Sirley Alcocer, Nereida Valero, Alejandra Morón, Ninoska Viera

Resumen


Introducción: Las enfermedades periodontales se inician por las bacterias periodontopatogenas presentes en la placa dental, causando la gingivitis. Si ésta no es tratada progresa a periodontitis, donde se afectan las estructuras de soporte del diente trayendo como consecuencia la perdida de las piezas dentales. Sin embargo, se ha descrito que la respuesta inmunitaria del huésped juega un rol importante en el desarrollo y severidad de la enfermedad. La melatonina (MLT) es una molécula con propiedades antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias de la cual se ha descrito la capacidad de modular la respuesta del sistema inmunitario atenuando la producción de especies reactivas de oxigeno (ROS) y de citocinas proinflamatorias como IL-1, 6, 8, 12 y 17 suprimiendo la inflamación y el estrés oxidativo en la enfermedad periodontal. Conclusión: Es necesario el uso de fármacos como la MLT que actúen sobre la respuesta del sistema inmunitario del individuo para detener el proceso de destrucción de los tejidos periodontales.

Palabras clave


enfermedad Periodontal; periodontitis crónica; inflamación; Melatonina

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