Cangrejos dulceacuícolas de las tierras altas de la Guayana venezolana

  • Héctor Suárez A. Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)
Palabras clave: biogeografía, cangrejos dulceacuícolas, ciclo de taxones, distribución insular, Microthelphusa, Neotrópico, tepuyes


Los cangrejos de agua dulce neotropicales tienen un amplio rango de distribución desde el sur de México hasta Perú, incluida toda la cuenca del Amazonas y las Guayanas. Entre ellos, las especies de grandes altitudes del género Microthel-phusa Pretzmann, 1968, tienen una biogeografía muy peculiar. Su distribución es insular y discontinua, presentando una separación considerable entre ellos. Doce especies se encuentran al sur del río Orinoco, de las cuales seis se encuentran en la Guayana venezolana, y de estas, cinco son endémicas del altiplano de los tepuyes. En este artículo intento explicar la distribución de las especies de Microthelphusa y su presencia en las elevaciones superiores de los tepuyes.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Héctor Suárez A., Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)

Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado Postal 20632, Caracas, 1020-A, Venezuela.


Albert, J. S., N. R. Lovejoy & W. G. R. Crampton. 2006. Miocene tectonism and the separation of cis- and trans- Andean river basins: evidence from Neotropical fishes. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 14−27.

Allibon, J., P. Monjoie, H. Lapierre, E. Jaillard, F. Bussy, D. Bosch & F. Senebier. 2008. The contribution of the young Cretaceous Caribbean Oceanic Plateau to the genesis of late Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Cordillera Occidental of Ecuador. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 26: 3555−3568.

Almeida-Filho, R. & F. P. Miranda. 2007. Mega capture of the Rio Negro and formation of the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Evidences in an SRTM digital elevation model. Remote Sensing of Evironment 110: 387−392.

Anderson, L. C., J. H. Hartman & F. Wesselingh. 2006. Close evolutionary affinities between freshwater corbulid bivalves from the Neogene of western Amazonia and Paleogene of the northern Great Plains, USA. Journal of South American
Earth Sciences 21: 28−48.

Andriessen, P. A. M., K. F. Helmens, H. Hooghiemstra, P. A. Riezebos & T. van der Hammen. 1993. Absolute chronology of the Pliocene-Quaternary sediment sequence of Bogota Area, Colombia. Quaternary Science Reviews 12: 483−501.

Anger, K. 2013. Neotropical Macrobrachium (Caridea: Palaemonidae): on the biology, origin, and radiation of freshwater-invading shrimp. Journal of Crustacean Biology 33(2): 151−183.

Barreat, F., A. Barreto, S. Gorzula, O. Huber, G. Medina-Cuervo & C. Schubert. 1986. Reconocimiento preliminar del Macizo del Chimantá, Estado Bolívar (Venezuela). Acta Científica Venezolana 37: 25−42.

Bond-Buckup, G., C. G. Jara, L. Buckup, M. Pérez-Lozada, A. A. P. Bueno, K. A. Crandall & S. Santos. 2010. New species and new records of endemic freshwater crabs from the Atlantic forest in Southern Brazil (Anomura: Aeglidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 30(3): 495−502.

Bott, R. 1970. Betrachtungenüber die Entwicklungs geschichte und Verbreitung der Süsswasserkrabbennach der Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums in Genf/Schweiz. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 77 (2): 327−344.

Brown, K. S., Jr. 1987. Biogeography and evolution of Neotropical butterflies. pp. 66−104. In: Whitmore, T. C. & G. T. Prance (eds.). Biogeography and Quaternary history of Tropical America. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bookfield, M. E., D. P. Hemmings & P. Van Straaten. 2009.

Paleoenvironments and origin of the sedimentary phosphorites of the Napo Formation (Late Cretaceous, Orient Basin, Ecuador). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 28: 180−192.

Bush, M. B., P. E. de Oliveira, P. A. Colinvaux, M. C. Miller & J. E. Moreno. 2004. Amazonian paleoecological histories: one hill, three watersheds. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 214: 359−393.

Campos, M. R., C. Magalhães & G. Rodríguez. 2002. The freshwater crabs of southern Colombia and their biogeographical affinities (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae). Nauplius 10(1): 15−25.

Campos, M. R. & C. Magalhães. 2004. Achagua Campos, 2001, a new synonym of Eudaniela Pretzmann, 1971, and the decription of Rodriguezus gen. nov. (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae). Nauplius 12(2): 95−97.

Candeiro, C. R. A. & T. Rich. 2010. Overview of the Late Cretaceous Biota of the western Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 29(2): 346−353.

Cardona Molina, A., U. G. Cordani & W. D. MacDonald. 2006. Tectonic correlations of pre-Mesozoic crust from the northern termination of the Colombian Andes, Caribbean region. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 337−354.

Cisne, J. L. 1974. Evolution of the world fauna of aquatic freeliving arthropods. Evolution 22(3): 337−366.

Coates, A. G., J. B. C. Jackson, L. S. Collins, Th. M. Cronin, H. J. Dowsett, L. M. Bybell, P. Jung & J. A. Obando. 1992. Closure of the Isthmus of Panama: the near-shore marine record of Costa Rica and western Panama. Geological Society of America Bulletin 104: 814−828.

Collins, L. S., A. G. Coates, W. A. Berggren, M. P. Aubry & J. Zhang. 1996. The Late Miocene Panama isthmian strait. Geology 24(8): 687−690.

Colmenares, O. A. & L. V. Terán. 1993. A biostratigraphy study of Paleogene sequences in southwestern Venezuela. Palynology 17: 67−89.

Compañía Shell de Venezuela & Creole Petroleum Corporation. 1964. Paleozoic rocks of Merida Andes, Venezuela. The Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 48(1): 70−84.

Cortes, B. R. & R. P. Franco. 1997. Análisis panbiogeográfico de la flora de Chiribiquete, Colombia. Caldasia 19(3): 465−478.

Cortés, M., B. Colleta & J. Angelier. 2006. Structure and tectonics of the central segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 437−465.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, M. Benmesbah, S. Fratello & Zs. Bálint. 2019b. Lepidoptera from the Pantepui. Part VII. A distinctive Lamprospilus species from the Guiana Highlands (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae). Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 50(2): 111–128.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, M. Benmesbah, A. F. E. Neild & Zs. Bálint. 2018. Lepidoptera from the Pantepui. Part V. New Lycaenidae (Theclinae: Eumaeini). Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 49(2): 163–179.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, P. Blandin, A. F. E. Neild & M. Benmesbah. 2020. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte IX. Nuevos Nymphalidae (Satyrinae) y Riodinidae (Riodininae). Antenor 7(1): 19−41.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, A. F. E. Neild, S. Fratello & M. Benmesbah. 2019c. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte VIII. Nuevos Nymphalidae (Charaxinae y Satyrinae) y Riodinidae (Riodininae). Anartia 29: 20−48.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, A. F. E. Neild, S. A. Fratello, C. Callaghan & J. Y. Gallard. 2017. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte IV. Nuevos Riodinidae Riodininae y Pieridae Pierinae. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 122(3): 269–286.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, A. F. E. Neild, S. Fratello & S. Nakahara. 2016. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte III. Nuevos Nymphalidae, Cyrestinae y Satyrinae. Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 121(2): 179–206.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal & A. Orellana. 2014b. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte II. Descripción de nuevos Nymphalidae (Papilionoidea). Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 119(1): 39–52.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, A. Orellana & M. Benmesbah. 2019a. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte VI. Nuevos Hesperiidae (Hesperiinae) y Nymphalidae (Limenitidinae y Satyrinae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 123(1): 77–102.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, S. Attal, A. Orellana, A. F. E. Neild; M. Benmesbah & N. V. Grishin. [2021]. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte X. Nuevos Pieridae (Dismorphiinae) y Hesperiidae (Pyrrhopyginae). Antenor 7(2): 82−105.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, C. Callaghan, M. Trujano-Ortega, A. F. E. Neild, M. Benmesbah, S. Attal & N. V. Grishin. 2021. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte XI. Nuevos Riodinidae (Riodininae), Pieridae (Dismorphiinae) y Nymphalidae (Satyrinae). Antenor (8(1): 2−28.

Costa, M., Á. L. Viloria, O. Huber; S. Attal & A. Orellana. 2014a. Lepidoptera del Pantepui. Parte I: Endemismo y caracterización biogeográfica. Entomotrópica 28(3): 193–216. Cozzuol, M. A. 2006. The Acre vertebrate fauna: age, diversity, and geography. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 185−203.

Cracraft, J. 1988. Deep-history biogeography: retrieving the historical pattern of evolving continental biotas. Systematic Zoology 37(3): 221−236.

Cumberlidge, N. 2007. A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Microthelphusa (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) from a remote isolated cloud forest on a tabletop mountain in western Guyana, South America. Zootaxa 1447: 57−62.

Cumberlidge, N., P. K. L. Ng, D. C. J. Yeo, C. Magalhães, M. R. Campos, F. Alvarez, T. Naruse, S. R. Daniels, L. J. Esser, F. Y. Attipoe, F. L. Clotilde-Ba, W. Darwall, A. McIvor, J. E. M. Baillie, B. Collen & M. Ram. 2009. Freshwater crabs and the biodiversity crisis: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Conservation 142: 1665−1673.

Cumberlidge, N., F. Alvarez & J. L. Villalobos. 2014. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae): theNeotropical Region, with and update on diversity. Zookeys 457: 133−157.

Cunha Ribeiro, A. 2006. Tectonic history and biogeography of the freshwater fishes from the coastal drainages of eastern Brazil: an example of faunal evolution associated with a divergent continental margin. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(2): 225−246.

Dentzien-Dias, P. C., C. L. Schultz & C. Bertoni-Machado. 2008. Taphonomy and palaecology inferences of vertebrate ichnofossils from Guará Formation (Upper Jurassic), southern Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 25: 196−202.

Diaz, H. & G. Rodríguez. 1977. The branchial chamber in terrestrial crabs: a comparative study. Biological Bulletin 153: 485−504.

Diazgranados, D. 1979. Geografía. pp. 7−77. In: La Amazonia colombiana y sus recursos. Proyecto Radargramétrico del Amazonas. Colombia. Bogotá, D. C.: Italgraf, S. A.

Estrada, J. & J. Fuertes. 1993. Estudios botánicos de la Guayana Colombiana, IV. Notas sobre la vegetación y flora de la Sierra de Chiribiquete. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 18(71): 488−498.

Etter, A. (ed.). 2001. Puinawai y Nukak. Caracterización ecológica de dos reservas Nacionales, Naturales de la Amazonia colombiana. Ambiente y desarrollo. Serie Investigación 2. Bogotá: Instituto de Estudios Ambientales para el Desarrollo, Universidad Javeriana, 271 pp.

Fabbrin Pires, E. & M. Guerra Sommer. 2009. Plantarthropod interaction in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) of the Araripe Basin, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 27: 50−59

Feijó Ramos, M. I. 2006. Ostracods from the Neogene Solimoes Formation (Amazonas, Brazil). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 87−95.

Feldmann, R. M. 2003. The Decapoda: new initiatives and novel approaches. Journal of Paleontology 77(6): 1021−1039. Feldmann, R. M. & C. E. Schweitzer. 2006. Paleobiogeography of Southern Hemisphere decapod Crustacea. Journal of Paleontology 80(1): 83−103.

Fouquet, A., B. P. Noonan, M. T. Rodrigues, N. Pech, A. Gilles & N. J. Gemmell. 2012. Multiple Quaternary refugia in Eastern Guiana Shield revealed by comparative phylogeography of 12 frog species. Systematic Biology 61(3): 461−489.

Fundación TERRAMAR (ed.). 1993. Informe técnico sobre los Tepuyes. Formación Roraima, Venezuela. Acta Terramaris 6: 1−74.

Flynn, J. J., R. Charrier González, D. A. Croft, P. B. Gans, T. M. Herriott, J. A. Wertheim & A. R. Wyss. 2008. Chronologic implications of new Miocene mammals from Cura-Mallin and Trapa Trapa Formations, Laguna de Laja area, south central Chile. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 26: 412−423.

Galvis Vergara, J. 1994. Estudio geológico de la Sierra de Chiribiquete y zonas aledañas (Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19(73): 275−286.

Gayet, M., J. C. Rage, Th. Sempere & P. Y. Gagnier. 1992. Modalités des échanges de vertébrés continentaux entre l’Amérique du Nord et l’Amérique du Sud au Crétacee Superieur et au Paléocène. Bulletin de la Societe Géologique de France 163(6): 781−791.

Gilliard, E. T. 1942. The Cordillera Macarena, Colombia. The Geographical Review 32(3): 463−470.

Habib, D. & J. A. Miller. 1989. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 74: 23−47.

Hamilton, H., S. Caballero, A. G. Collins & L. R. Brownell, Jr. 2001. Evolution of river dolphins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 268: 549−556.

Haq, B. U., J. Hardenbo & P. R. Vail. 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since Triassic. Science 235: 1156−1167.

Harberle, S. 1997. Upper Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the Amazon Basin: correlating marine and terrestrial pollen records. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 155: 381−396.

Harberle, S. G. & M. A. Maslin. 1999. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate change in the Amazon Basin based on a 50.000 year pollen record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932. Quaternary Research 51: 27−38.

Harrington, H. J. 1962. Paleogeographic development of South America. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 46(10): 1773−1814.

Haug, G. H. & R. Tiedemann. 1998. Effect of formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature 393: 673−676.

Haug, G. H., R. Tiedemann, R. Zahn & A. Ch. Ravelo. 2001. Role of Panama uplift on oceanic freshwater balance. Geology 29(3): 207−210.

Haug, J. T., J. W. Martin & C. Haug. 2015. A 150 million year old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms7417.

Hokche, O., P. E. Berry & O. Huber. 2008. Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. Caracas: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela Dr. Tobías Lasser, 859 pp.

Hoogmoed, M. S. 1979. The herpetofauna of the Guianan region. pp. 241-279. In: Duellman, W. E. (ed.). The South American herpetofauna: its origin, evolution and dispersal. Monograph 7. Lawrence: University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History.

Hoorn, C. 1993. Marine incursions and influence of Andean tectonics on the Miocene depositional history of northwestern Amazonia: results of a palynostratigraphic study. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 105: 267−309.

Hoorn, C. 1994. An environmental reconstruction of the palaeo-Amazon River system (Middle-Late Miocene, NW Amazonia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 112: 187−238.

Hoorn, C., J. Guerrero, A. G. Sarmiento & M. A. Lorente. 1995.

Andean tectonics as a cause for changing drainage patterns in Miocene northern South America. Geology 23(3): 237−240.

Hoorn, C. & H. Vonhof. 2006. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21(1-2): 1−4.

Hoorn, C. & F. P. Wesselingh (eds.). 2010. Amazonia: landscape and species evolution. A look into the past. Chichester, UK and Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, xiii + 447 pp.

Huber, O. 1987. Consideraciones sobre el concepto de Pantepui. Pantepui (Caracas) 1(2): 2−10.

Huber, O. 1988. Vegetación y flora del Pantepui, Región Guayana. Acta Botánica Brasileira 1(2): 41−52.

Hulka, C., K. U. Gräfe, B. Sames, C. E. Uba & C. Heubeck. 2006. Depositional setting of the Middle Miocene Yecua Formation the Chaco Foreland Basin, southern Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 135−150.

Iturraldeinent, M. A. 2003. The conflicting paleontologic versus stratigraphic record of the formation of the Caribbean Seaway. pp. 75-88. In: Bartolini, C., R. T. Buffler & J. Blickwede (eds.). The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean: Hydrocarbon habitats, basin formation, and plate tectonics: AAPG Memoir 79.

Jaimes, E. & M. de Freitas. 2006. An Albian-Cenomanian unconformity in the northern Andes: evidence and tectonic significance. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 466−492.

Jasper, A., D. Uhl & V. Guerra-Sommer & M. Mosbrugger. 2008. Palaeobotanical evidence of wildfires in the Late Paleozoic of South America – early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 26: 435−444.

Kaandorp, R. J. G., F. P. Wesselingh, & H. B. Vonhof. 2006. Ecological implications from geochemical records of Miocene Western Amazonian bivalves. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 54−74.

Kay, R. F. & M. A. Cozzuol. 2006. New platyrrhine monkeys from the Solimoes Formation (Late Miocene, Acre State, Brazil). Journal of Human Evolution 50: 673−686.

Klaus, S., C. Magalhaes, R. Salas-Gismondi, M. Gross & P. O. Atoine 2017. Palaeogene and Neogene brachyurans of the Amazon Basin: a revisited first appearance date for primary freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Trichodactylidae). Crustaceana 90(7-10): 953−967.

Kroonenberg, S. B., J. G. M. Bakker & A. M. van der Wiel. 1990. Late Cenozoic uplift and paleogeography of the Colombian Andes: constraints on the development of high-Andean biota. Geologie en Mijnbouw 69: 279−290.

Lasso, C. A., J. Hernández-Acevedo, E. Alexander, J. C. Señaris, Mesa, H. Samudio, J. Mora-Day, C. Magalhaes, A. Shushu, E. Mauruwanaru & R. Shoni. 2013. Aquatic biota: fishes, decapod crustaceans and mollusks of the Upper Essequibo Basin (Konashen COCA), southern Guyana. pp. 43−54. In: McCullough, J., P. Hoke, P. Naskrecki & Y. Osei-Owusu (eds.). A rapid Biological assessment of the Konashen Community Owned Conservation Area. Arlington, VA & Georgetown, Guyana: Conservation International.

Latrubesse, E. M., S. A. F. da Silva, M. Cozzuol & M. L. Absy. 2007. Late Miocene continental sedimentation in southwestern Amazonia and its regional significance: biotic and geological evidence. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 23: 61−80.

Leier, A., N. McQuarrie, C. Garcione & J. Eiler. 2013. Stable isotope evidence for multiple pulses of rapid surface uplift in the Central Andes, Bolivia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 371/372: 49−58.

Leonhardt, A. & M. L. Lorscheitter. 2010. The last 25,000 years in the eastern Plateau of Southern Brazil according to Alpes de Sao Francisco record. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 29: 454−463.

Limarino, C. O. & L. A. Spalletti. 2006. Paleogeography of the upper Paleozoic basins of southern South America: an over- view. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 22: 134−155.

Lovejoy, N. R., J. S. Albert & W. G. R. Crampton. 2006. Miocene marine incursions and marine/freshwater transitions: evidence from Neotropical fishes. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 5−13.

Lovejoy, Th. E. 2017. The Amazon region. Science Advances. 3(11): eaar3677.

Lundberg, J. G. 1992. A Miocene fossil of the Amazonian fish Arapaima (Teleostei, Arapaimidae) from the Magdalena River region of Colombia – biogeography and evolutionary implications. Biotropica 24(1-2):14.

Magalhães, C. & G. Pereira. 2007. Assessment of the Crustacea Decapoda diversity in the Guayana Shield region aiming conservation decisions. Biota Neotropica 7(2): 111−124.

Magalhaes, C. 2010. A new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Microthelphusa from a Tepui in the Serra do Araca, state of Amazonas, Brazil. pp. 453−460. In: Franzen, C., S. de Grave & P. Ng (eds.). Studies on Malacostraca. Lipke Bijdeley Holthuis Memorial Volume. Monographs 14.

Maguire, B. 1979. Guyana, region of the Roraima Sandstone Formation. pp. 223−238. In: K. Larsen & L. B. Holm-Nielsen (eds.). Tropical Botany. London, New York, San Francisco: Academic Press.

Malabarba, L. R., R. E. Reis, R. P. Vari, Z. M. S. Lucena & C. A. S. Lucena 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes. Porto Alegre, Brasil: EDIPUCRS, 603 pp.

Mantelatto, F. L., L. Pileggi, H. Suárez & C. Magalhães. 2008. First record and extension of the known distribution of the inland prawn, Macrobrachium aracamuni Rodríguez, 1982 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in Brazil. Crustaceana 81(2): 241−246.

Martínez, J. I., Y. Yokoyama, A. Gómez, A. Delgado, H. Matsuzaki & E. Rendón. 2010. Late Holocene marine terraces of the Cartagena region, Southern Caribbean: the product of neotectonism or former high stand in sea level? Journal of South American Earth Sciences 29: 214-224.

Maslin, M. A. & S. J. Burns. 2000. Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin effective moisture availability over the past 14,000 years. Science 290: 2285−2287.

Meschede, M. & W. Frisch. 1998. A plate tectonic model for the Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic history of the Caribbean Plate. Tectonophysics 296: 269−291.

Molano Campuzano, J. 1971. Un tesoro del Mundo: la Sierra de la Macarena. Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica Colombiana 27(103): 1−31.

Monsch, K. A. 1998. Miocene fish faunas from the northwestern Amazonian basin (Colombia, Peru, Brazil). With evidence of marine incursions. Palaeogegraphy, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 143: 31−50.

Müller, P. 1973. The dispersal centers of terrestrial vertebrates in the Neotropical realm: a study in the evolution of the Neotropical biota and its native landscape. The Hague: Junk, 244 pp.

Muñoz-Torres, F. A., R. C. Whatley & D. van Harten. 2006. Miocene ostracod (Crustacea) biostratigraphy of the upper Amazon Basin and evolution of the genus Cyprideis. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 75−86.

Murdock, T. Q., A. J. Weaver & A. F. Fanning. 1997. Palaeoclimatic response of the closing of the Isthmus of Panama in a coupled oceanatmosphere model. Geophysical Research Letters 24(3): 253−256.

Neild, A. F. E. 1996. The butterflies of Venezuela. Part I. Nymphalidae I (Limenitidinae, Apaturinae, Charaxinae). A comprehensive guide to the identification of adult Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae. Greenwich, London: Meridian Publications, 144 pp.

Neild, A. F. E. 2008. The butterflies of Venezuela. Part 2. Nymphalidae II (Acraeinae, Libytheinae, Nymphalinae, Ithomiinae, Morphinae). A comprehensive guide to the identification of adult Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, and Pieridae. Greenwich, London: Meridian Publications, 275 pp.

Ortmann, A. E. 1902. The geographical distribution of freshwater decapods and its bearing upon ancient geography. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 41(171): 267−400.

Paba Silva, F. & T. van der Hammen. 1960. Sobre la Geología de la Parte Sur de la Macarena. Bogotá: Servicio Geológico Nacional, 30 pp.

Pedraza M. & M. Tavares. 2014. A new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Microthelphusa Prezmann, 1968 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) from the Amazon region of Guyana. Zootaxa 3847(2): 267−274.

Pereira, G., C. A. Lasso, J. Mora-Day, C. Magalhaes, M. A. Morales-Betancourt & M. Campos. 2009. Lista de los crustáceos decápodos de la cuenca del Río Orinoco (Colombia-Venezuela). Biota Colombiana 10(1-2): 75−87.

Perkins, S. 2014. Why the Amazon flows backward. Science News. backward Posada-Swafford, A. 2017. Advances. Amazon Atlantis. Scientific American 317(1):12-14.

Pretzmann, G. 1967. Über einige südamerikanische Süsswasser- krabben (Pseudothelphusidae). Vorläufige Mitteilung. Entomologische Nachrichtenblatt 14: 23−26.

Pretzmann, G. 1968. Weitere neue südamerikanische Süsswas-serkrabben. Entomologische Nachrichtenblatt 15(2): 1−6. Ramon, J. C. & A. Rosero. 2006. Multiphase structural evolution of the western margin of the Girardot subbasin, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 493−509.

Ramos, V. A. & M. Moreno. 2006. Tectonic evolution of the Colombian Andes. Journal of South American Earth Science 21: 319−321.

Rapoport, E. H. 1975. Areografìa. Estrategias geográficas de las especies. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 214 pp.

Räsänen, M. E, A.M. Linna, J. C. R. Santos & F. R. Negri. 1995. Late Miocene tidal deposition in the Amazonian foreland basin. Science 269: 386−390.

Rathbun, M. 1898. A contribution to a knowledge of the freshwater crabs of America. The Pseudothelphusinae. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 21 (1158): 507−537.

Rathbun, M. 1905. Les crabs d ‘eau douce (Potamonidae). Nouvelles Archives du Museum National d’ Histoire Naturelle 4(8): 33−122.

Rebata, H. L. A., M. E. Räsänen, M. K. Gingras, V. Vieira, Jr., M. Barberi & G. Irion. 2006. Sedimentology and ichnology of tideinfluenced Late Miocene successions in western Amazonia: the gradational transition between the Pebas and Nauta formations. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 96−119.

Restrepo, J. D. & A. López. 2008. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, -South America. Journal of South American Earth Science 25: 1−21.

Riccardi, A. C. 1987. Cretaceous paleogeography of southern South America. Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 59: 169−195.

Riina, R. 1996. El elemento fitogeográfico andino en la Provincia Pantepui, región Guayana, Venezuela. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Biología, 107 pp. [biology thesis]

Ricklefs, R. E. 1970. Stage of taxon cycle and distribution of birds on Jamaica, Greater Antilles. Evolution 24: 475–477. Ricklefs, R. E. & B. Eldredge. 2002. The concept of the Taxon Cycle in biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11: 353−361.

Rodríguez, G. 1966. The freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa from northern Venezuela and Trinidad. Zoologische Mededelingen 41:111−135, 7 pls.

Rodríguez, G. & H. Díaz. 1977. Note sur queques restes de Crabes d`eau douce (Pseudothelphusidae) provenant d`un Kjoekken-Moedding du Venezuela. Crustaceana 33(1): 107−109.

Rodríguez, G. 1980. Description préliminaire de quelques espèces et genres nouveaux de Crabes d’eau douce de l’Amerique tropicale. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle 4(2): 889−894.

Rodríguez, G. 1982. Les crabes d’eau douce d’Amérique. Famille des Pseudothelphusidae. FauneTropicalle XXII. Paris: ORS-TOM Editions, 223 pp.

Rodríguez, G. 1992. The freshwater crabs of America. Family Trichodactylidae and supplement to the family Pseudothelphusidae. Faune Tropicale XXXI. Paris: Orstom Editions. 189 pp.

Rodríguez G. 1997. Trichodactylid crabs. pp. 80−83. In: Kay, R. F., R. H. Madden, R. L. Cifelli & J. J. Flynn (eds.). Vertebrate paleontology in the Neotropics. The Miocene fauna of La Venta, Colombia. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution.

Rodríguez, G. & M. R. Campos. 2000. Microthelphusa sucreensis, a new species of Pseudothelphusidae (Decapoda), with notes on abnormalities in the sexual appendages of freshwater crabs. Journal of Crustacean Biology 20 (special number 2): 332−336.

Rodríguez, G. & A. E. Esteves. 1972. Una nueva especie de cangrejo de agua dulce (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae) del centro de Venezuela. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle 92: 133−137.

Rossetti, D. F., P. Mann de Toledo & A. M. Góes. 2005. New geological framework for Western Amazonia (Brazil) and implications for biogeography and evolution. Quaternary Research 23: 78−89.

Ruban, D. A., H. Zerfass & V. I. Pugatchev. 2009. Triassic synthesis of southern South America (Sothwestern Gondwana) and the western Caucasus (the northern Neothethys), and global tracing of their boundaries. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 28: 155−167.

Rull, V. 1991. Contribución a la paleoecología de Pantepui y la Gran Sabana (Guayana Venezolana): clima, biogeografía y ecología. Scientia Guaianae 2: 133 pp.

Rull, V. 1999. Paleoclimatology and sea-level history in Venezuela. Interciencia 24(2): 92−101.

Rull, V., T. Vegas-Villarrúbia & S. Nogué. 2005. Cambio climático y diversidad de la flora vascular en las montañas tabulares de Guayana. Orsis 20: 61−71.

Rull, V. & T. Vegas-Villarrúbia. 2006. Unexpected biodiversity loss under global warming in the Neotropical Guayana highland: a preliminary appraisal. Global Change Biology 12: 1−9. Rull, V. & T. Vegas-Villarrúbia, S. Nogué & O. Huber. 2009. Conservation of the unique Neotropical vascular flora of the Guayana highlands in the face of global warming. Conservation Biology 23(3): 1323−1327.

Shell de Venezuela & Creole Petroleum Corporation. 1964. Paleozoic rocks of Mérida Andes, Venezuela. The Bulletin of the American Petroleum Association of Petroleum Geologists 48(1): 70−84.

Schneider Santos, J. O., P. E. Potter, N. J. Reis, L. A. Hartmann, R. Fletcher & N. J. McNaughton. 2003. Age, source and regional stratigraphy of the Roraima Super group and Roraima-like outliers in northern South America base on U-Pb geochronology. Geological Society of America Bulletin 115(3): 331−348.

Schram, F. R. 2001. Phylogeny of decapods: moving towards a consensus. Hydrobiologia 449: 1−20.

Schubert, C. 1985. Orígenes de la Gran Sabana (Escudo de Guayana), Venezuela. Nachrichten der Deustsch-Venezolanischen Gesellschaft. Jg. III. 3/4: 164−168.

Schubert, C. & P. Fritz. 1985. Radiocarbon ages of peat, Guayana Highlands (Venezuela). Naturwissenschaften 72: 427−429.

Schubert, C. 1986. Paleoenvironmental studies in the Guayana Region Southeast Venezuela. Current Research in the Pleistocene 3: 88−90.

Schubert, C. 1986a. Terrazas aluviales en el escudo de Guayana: Informe preliminar. Acta Científica Venezolana 37: 226−238.

Shubert, C. 1993. El mundo perdido no está en el Macizo de Guayana. Revista Geográfica Venezolana 34: 129−134.

Schubert, C., P. Fritz & R. Aravena. 1994. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental studies in the Gran Sabana (Venezuelan Guayana Shield). Quaternary International 21: 81−90.

Shephard, G. E, R. D. Muller, L. Liu & M. Gurnis. 2010. Miocene drainage reversal of the Amazon River driven by platemantle interaction. Nature Geoscience Letters 3: 870−875.

Silva Tamayo, J. C., G. M. Sierra & L. G. Correa. 2008. Tectonic and climatic driven fluctuations in the stratigraphic base level of a Cenozoic continental coal basin, northwestern Andes. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 26: 369−382.

Souza-Carvalho, E. A., C. Magalhaes & F. L. Mantelatto. 2017. Molecular phylogeny of the Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Trichodactylidae) species complex. Journal of Crustacean Biology 37(2): 187−194.

Stephan, J. F., B. Mercier de Lepinay, E. Calais, M. Tardy, C. Beck, J. C. Carfatan, J. L. Olivet, J. M. Vila, P. Bouysse, A. Mauffret, J. Bourgois, J. M. Thery, J. Tournon, R. Blanchet & Dercourt. 1990. Paleogeodynamic maps of the Caribbean: 14 steps from Lias to Present. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 8(6): 915−919.

Stern, C. M. 1954. La génesis del Casiquiare. Acta Científica Venezolana 5(2): 52−53.

Stevcic, Z. 1971. The main features of brachyuran evolution. Systematic Zoology 20: 331−340.

Steyermark, J. A. 1979. Plant refuge and dispersal centres in Venezuela: their relict and endemic elements. pp. 185−221. In: Larsen, K. & L. B. Holm-Nielsen (eds.). Tropical Botany. London, New York, San Francisco: Academic Press.

Suárez, H. 2006. New species of freshwater crab from Venezuela and redescription of Microthelphusa rodriguezi Pretzmann, 1968 (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusoidea: Pseudothelphusidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 26(2): 242−247.

Suárez, H. 2015. Six new species of freshwater crabs from Pantepui, Venezuela (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae). Anartia 25: 64−94.

Teixeira, W., M. A. Hamilton, V. A. V. Girardi, F. M. Faleiros & R.E. Ernst. 2019. U-Pb baddeleyite ages of key dyke swarms in the Amazonian Craton (Carajás/Río María and Río Apa areas): tectonic implications for events at 1880, 1110 Ma, 535 Ma and 200 Ma. Precambrian Research 329: 138–155.

Vega, F. J. & R. Feldmann. 1991. Fossil crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Maastrichtian Difunta Group, Northeastern Mexico. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 60(2): 163−177.

Von Sternberg, R., N. Cumberlidge & G. Rodríguez. 1997. On the marine sister groups of the freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 37: 19−38.

Wade, L. 2013. The Amazon in 4D. Science 341: 234−235.

Wade, L. 2017. Was the Amazon once an ocean? Science. doi:10.1126/science.aal1142.

Walter, H. 1976. Die oekologischen Systeme der Kontinente (Biogeosphaere). I. Stuttgart: G. Fischer Stuttgart, 131 pp.

Webb, S. D. 1995. Biological implications of the Middle Miocene Amazon Seaway. Science Perspectives 269: 361−362.

Weeks, L. G. 1956. Paleogeografía de América de Sur. Lima: Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Letras, Instituto de Geografía, 76 pp.

Magalhaes, C. & O. C. Bello-González. 2016. First confirmed report of a primary freshwater crab (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) associated with bromeliads in the Neotropics. Journal of Crustacean Biology 36(3): 303−309.

Wesselingh, F. P. & O. Macsotay. 2006. Pachydonhettneri (Anderson, 1928) as indicator for Caribbean-Amazonian lowland connections during the Early- Middle Miocene. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 49−53.

Westaway, R. 2006. Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequences in Acre state, southwestern Amazonia: fluvial or tidal? Deductions from the IGCP 449 fieldtrip. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21: 120−134.

Wilson, E. O. 1959. Adaptive shift and dispersal in a tropical ant fauna. Evolution 13: 122–144.

Wilson, E. O. 1961.The nature of the taxon cycle in the Melanesian ant fauna. American Naturalist 95: 169–193.

Wilson, E. O. 1992.The Diversity of Life. Cambridge: Belknap, 464 pp.

Woodburne, M. O. 2010. The Great American Biotic Interchange: dispersals, tectonics, climate, sea level and holding pens. Journal of Mammal Evolution 17(4): 245–264.
Cómo citar
Suárez A., H. (2021). Cangrejos dulceacuícolas de las tierras altas de la Guayana venezolana. Anartia, (33), 42-54.