Á. L. Viloria & M. Costa
Publicación del Museo de Biología de la Universidad del Zulia
ISSN 1315-642X (impresa) / ISSN 2665-0347 (digital)
Anartia, 34 (junio 2022): 18-27
A new subspecies of Oxeoschistus puerta (Westwood, 1851),
from the Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela
(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)
Una nueva subespecie de Oxeoschistus puerta (Westwood, 1851), de la
Sierra de Perijá, Venezuela occidental (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)
Ángel L. Viloria1 & Mauro Costa2
1Centro de Ecología, Instituto Venezolano de Inestigaciones Cientícas (IVIC), km 11 carretera Panamericana, Altos de Pipe,
estado Miranda 1204, Venezuela.
2Residencias Las Cumbres, avenida Las Acacias, La Florida, Caracas 1050, Distrito Capital, Venezuela.
Correspondence: sebastianiloriacarrizo@gmail.com; aviloria@ivic.gob.ve
(Received: 02-11-2021 / Accepted: 15-02-2022 / On line: 30-09-2022)
Oxeoschistus puerta sabinoi ssp. nov., a pronophiline buttery (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the montane
and upper montane forests (1,100-1,900 m a.s.l.) of the Venezuelan slope of the Sierra de Peri, Zulia state, Venezuela, is
described, illustrated and compared with its close congeners. e taxon O. puerta magnus Pyrcz & Viloria, 2007, from the
Serranía del Tamá, is revised and newly identied as Oxeoschistus simplex magnus comb. nov.
Keywords: Northern Andes, Lake Maracaibo basin, Pronophilina, Satyrini.
Se describe, ilustra y compara Oxeoschistus puerta sabinoi ssp. nov., una mariposa pronolina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae:
Satyrinae) procedente de los bosques montanos y altimontanos (1.100-1.900 m s.n.m.) de la vertiente venezolana de la Sie-
rra de Perijá, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se revisa el taxón O. puerta magnus Pyrcz & Viloria, 2007, de la Serranía del Tamá, y
se reidentica como Oxeoschistus simplex magnus comb. nov.
Palabras clave: Andes septentrionales, cuenca del Lago de Maracaibo, Pronophilina, Satyrini,
acteristic to the Paramo Province of the South American
transition zone.
e study of the buttery fauna of the Perijá Moun-
tains began in the late 19th Century (Godman & Salvin
1880). Viloria (1990b, 1997) compiled a number of bib-
liographic sources with references to a few entomological
expeditions to this range and the adjacent lowlands. ese
works also included the citation of systematic revisions of
some Neotropical buttery genera with mention to species
and subspecies from Perijá and papers with descriptions
of several of its endemic taxa. Starting in the late 1970s,
e Sierra de Perijá is a mountain range at the north-
ernmost tip of the Andes. Its main ridge (maximum eleva-
tion ca. 3,670 m a.s.l.) divides the Magdalena River (Co-
lombia) and the Lake Maracaibo (Venezuela) basins. So,
it harbors slightly dierent biological elements on each
slope, which according to Morrone et al. (2022), belong to
the adjacent biogeographical Provinces of Magdalena and
Guajira (Pacic Dominion), as well as higher elevation
Andean elements, part of which are endemics and char-
New subspecies of Oxeoschistus puerta
interest in the butteries of this region increased remark-
ably, and a number of taxonomic and faunistic studies
have been accomplished to improve the knowledge of the
regional Papilionoidea, most notably the Nymphalidae
(Adams 1977, 1984, 1985, Adams & Bernard 1979 [Co-
lombian slope], Viloria 1989, 1990a, b, 1991a, b, c, 1992,
1994, 1995, 2000, 2005, [2006], Pineda 1991, Viloria et
al. 1992, 2008, Neild 1996, 2008 [Venezuelan slope], Pu-
lido, 2007, Pulido & Andrade 2007, 2008, 2010, Andrade
2008, Pulido et al. 2010, 2011 [Colombian slope]).
Among the nymphalid butteries of the Sierra de Perijá,
the members of the Satyrinae have been particularly well
studied, especially the montane and high Andean members
of the subtribe Pronophilina, whose inventory was rst
achieved by Adams & Bernard (1979), followed by Viloria
(1990b) and Pulido & Andrade (2007, 2010). Only Vilo-
ria (op. cit.) detected and reported the presence of one spe-
cies of Oxeoschistus Butler, 1867 in this mountain range.
e genus Oxeoschistus was erected by Butler (1867).
He dened it by having forewings elongated and subfal-
cate with outer margin moderately wavy (minimally sinu-
ous) and notably wavy in hindwings; labial palpi long and
wavy. One diagnostic character was also the “forewing
cell bifurcated at the apex”, that is to say, divided by the
presence of a prominent recurrent vein entering the discal
cell, being the “lower fork” greater and arched, with three
angles, and the “upper fork” pointed and originating the
ve radial veins and M1 (Butler 1867: 267, [g.] 2, but
see Figure 3 of the present work). e type species of the
genus, by original designation, is Pronophila puerta West-
wood, 1851, a taxon endemic to the middle elevations of
the Cordillera de la Costa in northern Venezuela.
Forty years later, the genus was revised by ieme
(1907) and more recently by Pyrcz et al. (2020) (in part).
Judging from its morphological anities – palpi, legs, wing
pattern and venation, genitalic structure – (Reuter 1896,
Miller 1968, Adams 1986, Viloria 2007, Pyrcz 2010), and
genetic (molecular) relationships (Matz & Brower 2016),
Oxeoschistus belongs in the tribe Satyrini Boisduval, 1833,
subtribe Pronophilina Reuter, 1896, and should be placed
close to its type genus, Pronophila Doubleday, 1849.
Modern taxonomy of the species of Oxeoschistus has
been the subject of two arrangements (Lamas et al. 2004,
Pyrcz 2000). However, its species have been catalogued
or listed with synonymy by several authors since the 19th
Century (Kirby 1871, ieme 1907, Weymer 1911, Gaede
1931, D’Abrera 1988, Lamas et al. 2004, Pyrcz 2010, Pyrcz
et al. 2020).
e most recently described taxa are from Peru (O.
puerta garleppi Lamas 2003, O. iphigenia Pyrcz 2004),
Venezuela (O. romeo Pyrcz & Fratello 2005, O. puerta
magnus Pyrcz & Viloria 2007), Colombia (O. simplex tri-
plex Pyrcz & Salazar in Pyrcz & Rodríguez 2007), Costa
Rica and Honduras (respectively, O. tauropolis mitsuko
Pyrcz & Nakamura and O. hilara lempira Pyrcz in Pyrcz
et al. 2020).
e species of Oxeoschistus known to Venezuela have
been described, illustrated, reported or cited by West-
wood (1851), Raymond (1982), Viloria (1990b), Fratello
(2004), Pyrcz & Fratello (2005), Pyrcz & Viloria (2007),
Viloria et al. (2010), Viloria & Costa (2019) and Orellana
et al. (2019) (for a conclusive identication of the taxa
present in Venezuela, see discussion). In this paper we de-
scribe a new subspecies of Oxeoschistus puerta, which cor-
responds with the taxon referred to by Viloria (1990b) as
Oxeoschistus sp., and Oxeoschistus puerta ssp. nov. (Viloria
2000, Lamas et al. 2004).
e butteries studied for this report were collected
in the Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela in three dier-
ent occasions: December 1950, by Francisco Fernández
Yépez, October 1989, by Ángel L. Viloria and April 2011,
by Mauro Costa. It was rst detected as a new taxon dur-
ing the studies conducted by Viloria in 1988-1990 for his
rst degree thesis (Viloria 1990b). us, the specimens of
the type series have been examined several times ever since.
We have used standard techniques of observation and cap-
turing the adult insects in the eld (hand nets), ordinary
methods of setting the specimens, pinned for dry preser-
vation in entomological cabinets. e right wings of one
male specimen were removed, diaphanized by immersion
in diluted commercial bleach 1% for approximately 10
minutes, then profusely washed in distilled water, trans-
ferred subsequently to ethanol 70% for 15 minutes, and
then to absolute ethanol. ey were immediately xed and
permanently preserved in euparal between a large glass mi-
croscope slide (76 × 51 mm) and its cover (64 × 50 mm).
One male abdomen was removed and soaked overnight
in KOH 10% solution to digest and remove esh and fat
from the chitinous structures. Genitalic structures were
mechanically removed, transferred to distilled water for
8 hh and cleaned with microdissecting tools under a ste-
reoscopic microscope. Aer study, these microstructures
were stored in plastic vials with a solution of 70% ethanol
and 30% glycerine. Slides and vials have been externally
labelled and catalogued. Both wing veins and genitalic
structures were drawn with the aid of a camera lucida. Ob-
serving the specimens of the type series with and without
magnication, and their dissected organs and structures,
allowed for comparisons with other taxa (actual specimens