Relación entre el índice de masa corporal materno y los resultados adversos en el embarazo: Revisión sistemática de la literatura. / Relationship between the maternal body mass index and adverse pregnancy outcome: Systematic review of the literature.

María José Aguilar-Cordero, Ximena Alejandra León-Rios, Sandra Ruiz Moreno, Norma Mur-Villar

Resumen


Resumen.

La creciente incidencia de la obesidad a nivel mundial, ha hecho de esta uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública durante la gestación, al aumentar las comorbilidades maternas y perinatales y alterar el curso normal del embarazo, que pasa a denominarse embarazo de alto riesgo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre el índice de masa corporal y las complicaciones que se producen en el embarazo. Se ha efectuado una revisión sistemática siguiendo los criterios del protocolo PRISMA. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus y Cinahl entre los meses de enero y mayo de 2019. Las mujeres obesas o con sobrepeso mostraron más complicaciones en el embarazo, como diabetes mellitus gestacional, preeclampsia, parto pretérmino, cesárea, niños macrosómicos y una mayor tasa de abortos que las gestantes de peso normal. Las intervenciones de educación sanitaria durante el embarazo mejoraron la condición física de las gestantes, pero no redujeron las complicaciones. Se concluye que el sobrepeso y la obesidad se asocian con importantes complicaciones durante la gestación y durante el parto.

Abstract.

The increasing incidence of obesity worldwide has made this one of the main problems of Public Health during pregnancy, increasing maternal and perinatal comorbidities and altering the normal course of pregnancy; resulting in what it is known as high-risk pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the body mass index and the complications that occur during pregnancy. A systematic review has been carried out following the criteria of the PRISMA protocol. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Scopus and Cinahl databases between January and May 2019. Obese or overweight women showed more complications in pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, preterm birth, caesarean section, macrosomic children and a higher abortion rate, than pregnant women of normal weight. Health education intervention during pregnancy, improved the physical condition of pregnant women, but did not reduce pregnancy complications. It is concluded that overweight and obesity are associated with significant complications during pregnancy and during childbirth.


Palabras clave


embarazo; índice de masa corporal; obesidad; sobrepeso; complicaciones del embarazo; educación en salud; pregnancy; body mass index; obesity; overweight; pregnancy complications; health education.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22209/IC.v61n2a06

Universidad del Zulia / Venezuela / Investigación Clínica /riclinicas@gmail.com / p-ISSN: 0535-5133 / e-ISSN: 2477-9393

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